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Chapter 24 Section 2 Notes Watergate

Chapter 24 Section 2 Notes Watergate

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Chapter 24 Section 2 Notes Watergate

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  1. Chapter 24 Section 2 NotesWatergate

  2. The Imperial Presidency(1930’s - ?) • Our Govt. has a strict balance of power between executive, legislative, and judicial branches according to the Constitution • Changes in the 1930s. More power to Presidents than • FDR – New Deal stuff in the past • LBJ – Tonkin Gulf • Nixon continues expanding power of the Presidency • Impounding funds (later found unconstitutional) • Invading Cambodia without Congress approval • Many believe this continues still Critics of Obama claim he has passed executive orders that violate the Constitution (spying on U.S. citizens)

  3. Nixon’s major insecurity = losing elections • Lost to JFK in 1960 • Lost in Cal. Gov. election in 1962 • Won close election in 1968 • Will do whatever it takes to ensure victory in 1972 • Had the CIA make files on and harass dissidents • People that oppose govt. policies • Had the IRS audit the tax returns of his enemies

  4. Evidence of Nixon using The CIA for illegal means Began to leak out after Nixon quit the Presidency Part of a Nixon “Enemies” List

  5. The Watergate Break – In(June 1972) • Watergate = An apartment complex & convention center • Home of the DemocratNational Committee HQ’s • 5 men broke in. Arrived in Plumber Van • leader = James McCord (former CIA agent) • worked for Committee to Reelect the Pres. (CREEP) • headed by John Mitchell - former Nixon Attorney Gen. • Why? • photograph secret documents • place wiretaps on office phones

  6. The Cover Up • White House shreds incriminating documents • White House asks FBI to stop its investigation • White House pays burglars to keep quiet Check issued in advance to pay the burglars. More hush $$$ was promised after they were caught.

  7. The Media • Didn’t cover the scandal much initially • Busy with Vietnam, antiwar, and civil rights stuff • Washington Post keeps printing stories • 2 reporters = Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein • Used an anonymous source from inside the Fed. Govt. to link the Nixon Administration to the Burglary • Became Known as Deep Throat • Why? Sold Papers… kept public interested • White House denied involvement

  8. Deep Throat Deep Throat was the title of a controversial adult film that was in theaters at the time of the Watergate scandal. Woodward and Bernstein decided to use this pseudonym for Felt because they thought it would sell papers. Felt originally denied being the source for Woodward & Bernstein. He was the 2nd highest ranking FBI official when Watergate happened. He admitted to being Deep Throat 3 yrs. before he died in 2008.

  9. The Trial for the Burglars • 4 burglars kept quiet. Found guilty • sentenced to 5 years in prison. • Each served about a yr • McCord admits to lying under oath • Implicates many members of Nixon’s staff • Larger investigation of White House begins • Found Guilty of Conspiracy • 2 other CREEP’s (Liddy and Hunt) found guilty too • Serve between 1 & 2 yrs in prison McCord demonstrating How he Bugged a phone in the DNC HQ’s. 4 of the burglars with their attorney outside the courthouse (Jan. 1973)

  10. Senate announces an investigation of the White House • Nixon tries to handle the situation himself • Gets members of his staff to resign • Calls for an independent investigation • Claimed Democrats in Senate were “out to get him” • Senate ignores his request • continues with its own investigation • Nixon is ok with it

  11. All The President’s Men testify on TV • John Dean – former advisor • Directly implicates Nixon in the cover up • 1st to say he knew about it • Alexander Butterfield – former advisor • Said Nixon had audio tapes of all meetings • Senate wants the tapes for proof • Nixon refuses to give the tapes • The process to get the tapes takes about a yr Dean swearing to tell the truth The Senate committee listens to testimony Butterfield talking about the audio tapes Nixon had that constantly recorded everything in the Oval Office

  12. Saturday Night Massacre I’ll attempt to explain this quickly. Pretty funny stuff considering the names involved.

  13. Spiro Agnew (Nixon’s VP) quits (Oct. 1973) • Unrelated to Watergate • Nixon appoints Gerald Ford as VP • Congress approves

  14. Makes a # of TV appearances claiming he is innocent “I AM NOT A CROOK” Releases edited transcripts of the audio tapes Not enough for investigators still refuses to give up unedited tapes Nixon’s attempts to stay President

  15. U.S. v. Nixon • Supreme Court Ruling • Unedited tapes must be submitted (released 8/5/74) • They proved Nixon’s involvement in the cover up since 1972 • They do not prove he authorized the burglary in the 1st place

  16. When Nixon releases the “unedited tapes”, there was a segment that became famous for being recorded over. Nobody really knows what was on that tape, of course. It was a conversation between Nixon and his chief of staff, H.R. Haldeman. Everyone thought at the time that it was the 'smoking gun', the evidence that would prove Nixon knew about the Watergate break-in or the hush-money paid to the guys who did it and got caught. Rosemary Woods, Nixon's secretary, explained the 18 1/2 minute gap by saying that she was transcribing the tape and she accidentally hit the 'record' button instead of the stop button. At the Watergate hearings they set her up at a table to demonstrate how she might have done this, and she was completely unable to recreate the mistake.

  17. Congress begins filing paperwork for Impeachment • Nixon resigns before a vote can happen (8/9/74) • 1st and only time in the history of the U.S. that a president quit

  18. Effects of the Watergate Scandal • 25 people served prison time for Watergate • Nixon never did (more in Section 3) • The American public started viewing politicians suspiciously