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Organizational Behavior: Introduction

Organizational Behavior: Introduction

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Organizational Behavior: Introduction

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  1. Organizational Behavior:Introduction Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  2. Organization as a Social Phenomenon Type of Analysis Theoretical Applied (Practical) Organizational Sociology (OS) Strategic Management Macro Level of Analysis Change Management Meso Organization Theory (OT) Decrease in Productivity Human Resource Management Organizational Behavior (OB) Micro Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  3. Management Skills Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  4. Goals of Organizational Behavior Prediction Explanation Control Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  5. Psychology Sociology The Study of Organizational Behavior Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  6. Globalization Main Trends in OB Changing Workforce Empoweringthe Workforce Information Technology Values and Ethics Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  7. Trend 1: Globalization • Global companies: • Extend their activities to other parts of the world • Actively participate in other markets • Compete against firms in other countries • Implications of globalization: • New organizational structures • Different forms of communication • More competition, change, mergers, downsizing, stress • Need more sensitivity to cultural differences Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  8. Trend 2: Changing Workforce • Primary and secondary diversity • More women in workforce and professions • Different needs of Gen-X, Gen-Y, and baby-boomers • Diversity has advantages, but firms need to adjust through: • cultural awareness • family-friendly • empowerment Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  9. Trend 2: Changing Workforce • Employment Relationship • employees perform many tasks, not a specific job • Contingent work • no explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment • Telecommuting • working from home, usually with a computer connection to the office • Virtual teams • operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries; mainly communicate through electronic technologies Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  10. Trend 3: Empowering the Workforce • Managers Are Giving up Controls • Workforce Are Accepting Responsibility • Managers Are Delegating power Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  11. Trend 4: Information Technology • Affects how employees interact • Virtual teams • Telecommuting • Affects how organizations are configured • Network structures -- alliance of several organizations Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  12. Trend 5: Values and Ethics • Values • Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important • personal, cultural, organizational, professional • Importance of values • Globalization -- more awareness of different values • Values replacing command-and-control • More emphasis on ethical business conduct • Ethics • Moral principles/values -- determines whether actions are right/wrong and outcomes are good/bad Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  13. Dependent Variable in Organizational Behavior • Job Satisfaction; • Productivity; • Absenteeism and Turnover; • Organizational Identity • Organizational Involvement; • Organizational Commitment; • Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  14. Independent Variable andLevels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior • Collective • Level Individual Level Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  15. Order giver, privileged elite, manipulator, controller Facilitator, team member, teacher, advocate, sponsor, coach Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager Past Managers Future Managers • Primary • Role Periodic learning, narrow specialist Continuous life-long learning, generalist with multiple specialties Learning & Knowledge Compensation Criteria Skills, results Time, effort, rank Cultural Orientation Monocultural, monolingual Multicultural, multilingual Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  16. Formal Authority Knowledge (technical interpersonal) Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager Past Managers Future Managers • Primary • Source of Influence Potential problem Primary resource View of People Primary Communication Pattern Multidirectional Vertical Decision Making Style Broad-based input for joint decisions Limited input for individual decisions Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  17. Afterthought Forethought Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager Past Managers Future Managers • Ethical • Considerations Nature of Interpersonal Relationships Competitive(win-lose) Cooperative(win-win) Primary Communication Pattern Share and broaden access Hoard and restrict access Approach to Change Facilitate Resist Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

  18. E-business Implications for OB E-businessinvolves using the Internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business. • E-Management –Fast paced; Virtual teams, Networking skills • E-communication – Email use/abuse; Telecommuting promised and drawbacks • Goal setting and feedback – Web-based goal-setting/evaluation; Risk of over control? • Organizational structure – Virtual teams and organizations; Lack of trust and loyalty in “faceless” organizations? • Job design – “Sticky” work settings; Unrealistic expectations? • Decision making – Less time to make more decisions; Information overload; Empowerment and participative decision making • Knowledge management – E-training; E-learning; distance learning • Speed, conflict, and stress – Does relentless speed equal burnout? • Change and resistance to change – Stop the World, I want to get off! Constant change equals conflict • Ethics – Net slaves (low pay with unrealistic promises of riches); Electronic monitoring; Repetitive motion injuries; Abuse of part-timers (no benefits, no job security); Privacy issues Gholipour A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.