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Plant adaptation to changing environments: A role for GM PowerPoint Presentation
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Plant adaptation to changing environments: A role for GM

Plant adaptation to changing environments: A role for GM

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Plant adaptation to changing environments: A role for GM

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  1. Plant adaptation to changing environments: A role for GM Dr Jeremy Pritchard @DrJPritchard

  2. Ecology Organisms Cells Molecules

  3. Molecules: Transcription and Translation DNA mRNA Protein

  4. Population growth Climate change

  5. Conventional breeding has been going on for 10,000 years

  6. Why Sequence Genomes? • Will eventually tell us what genes do • Leads to Medical Applications • Leads to Agricultural Applications • Tells us about evolution • Tell us how we develop • Tell us how we are different to cabbages, mice and chimps

  7. Applications of GM crops

  8. Examples from my research • Knockouts What does a gene do? • Localisation Where is it expressed? • Transcriptomics How do genes respond? Must combine Molecular with Physiology

  9. Knockout (loss of function) Coding region makes protein Turns on specific gene Gene Promoter

  10. Knockout (loss of function) Coding region makes no or truncated protein Insertion

  11. Reporter genes Remove coding region

  12. Reporter genes Coding region makes fluorescent protein New coding region

  13. Phloem reporter gene

  14. Salinity – the silent flood

  15. Salt crosses membranes through protein ‘gates’ These gates control salt levels in xylem Salt Salt

  16. Bioinformatics- Arabidopsis – the model plant

  17. ctgtcttctcactaaactccaaaacccaccggaaaaatgattacgtggcacgacttgtacaccgtcctcaccgccgtggtaccactttacgtagctatgattctttacggcaatatttcacgcctacggatccgtacagtggtggaagatattctcaccagaccagtgctccggcacaaccgcttcgtcgctatcttcgccgtccctctcctctccttccacttcatctccaccaacgatctgtcttctcactaaactccaaaacccaccggaaaaatgattacgtggcacgacttgtacaccgtcctcaccgccgtggtaccactttacgtagctatgattctttacggcaatatttcacgcctacggatccgtacagtggtggaagatattctcaccagaccagtgctccggcacaaccgcttcgtcgctatcttcgccgtccctctcctctccttccacttcatctccaccaacgat CHx21 DNA Sequence MSSGAPLNVTNPNYDIEESRFGKIVCYDQSLLFEKREQKGWESGSTLASSLPFFITQLFVANLSYRVLYYLTRPLYLPPFVAQILCGLLFSPSVLGNTRFIIAHVFPYRFTMVLETFANLALVYN Amino acid Sequence Computer says: it looks like a salt transporter

  18. 10µm Immunology- protein is detected in root endodermis

  19. Is the computer right? Find out; make knockout mutants ctgtcttctc actaaactcc aaaacccacc ggaaaaatga ttacgtggca cgacttgtac accgtcctca ccgccgtggt accactttac gtagctatga ttct ttacg tggcaatatt atcacgccta cggatccgta cagtggtgga agatattctc accagaccag tgctccggca tcaaccgctt cgtcgctatc ttcgccgtcc ctctcctctc cttccacttc atctccacca acgatcctta cgccatgaat Insert extra sequence: This means stop – no protein is made

  20. Xylem sampling from transpiring plants

  21. Leaf salt is lower in mutant xylem and leaf

  22. Bioinformatics • 5 similar sequences to CHX21 • In pairs on chromosome 1 & 2

  23. CHX5 CHX14 CHX23 CHX8’ CHX13’ CHX21’ CHX8 CHX13 CHX21 1. Duplication 2. Translocation 3. Diversification CHX5 CHX14 CHX23 Chromosome 1 Chromosome 2

  24. To this…………... Evolution in action From this…………... EVOLOTION ……………….a better adapted plant

  25. Dr Jeremy Pritchard @DrJPritchard

  26. Slides and other resources are available as PowerPoint Email me: J.Pritchard@bham.ac.uk or go to http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/biosciences/outreach