Progressivism and Teddy Roosevelt Taft, and Wilson AP US Unit 12 February14-16, 2011 With some help from Ms. Susan Pojer
What is Progressivism? • Progressivism is a huge term used to explain the era of social reform at the turn of the century. • Most Progressives shared in at least one of the following goals: • Protecting social welfare • Promoting moral improvement • Creating economic reform • Fostering efficiency
Who Belonged to the Progressive Movement? • Populists • Muckrakers • Suffragettes • Prohibitionists • Trust-busters • Labor Unions • Most people during this time period felt an affinity to at least one of the Progressive Goals.
Where did the Progressive Movement Come From? • A reaction to the urban crisis • A reaction to increasing immigration • Women found that activism was an “acceptable” place for them in society • Many of the new educated women who went to college devoted their lives to service
Muckrakers - Who were They? • Journalists and photographers who did investigative pieces on the problems of America - especially urban areas. • Nicknamed this by TR • Jacob Riis - How the Other Half Lives • Upton Sinclair - The Jungle • Ida M. Tarbell - Investigation of Standard Oil
Photo Muckraking • Used to show the middle and upper classes “how the other half lived.” Jacob Riis Lewis Hines
Urban Reform • Sparked by the pictures and writings of the muckrakers, people in cities began to fight for urban reform • This took the form of police reform, building codes, the creation of parks, and attacks against the business of prostitution
Prohibition • Some reformers believed that morality, not economics, was at the root of urban problems. • Many of these people felt that alcohol was at the heart of these moral issues. Therefore, these reformers worked for Prohibition, or the legal banning of alcohol. • In 1874, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union was founded to crusade for prohibition.
Prohibition • Members of the group would enter saloons, scold customers, pray, and one woman even destroyed bottles of liquor with her hatchet. • In 1920, the eighteenth amendment was passed; it made the transportation, manufacture, or sale of alcohol illegal in the U.S. Carrie Nation with her hatchet
Prohibition • While prohibitionists finally got their wish, crime grew worse during prohibition and the eighteenth amendment was repealed in 1933 by the twenty-first amendment. Bootleggers with their alcohol
Political Progressives • Many of the politically progressive changes were actually inspired by the Populist platform
Bringing More Democracy to America • Initiative • Referendum • Direct Election of Senators • 17th Amendment passed in 1913 • Limits on campaign spending and contributions
Bringing More Efficiency to America • City Manager System • Have experts hired to run the city instead of those who benefitted from political spoils
Suffrage • Women had been fighting for the right to vote since Seneca Falls • Although, women were bypassed in the 15th Amendment, they continued to fight • Suffrage means the right to vote • It’s good!
Women Organize • The National Woman’s Suffrage Association was formed in 1869. The goal of this organization was to obtain a Constitutional Amendment guaranteeing women’s suffrage.
Women Organize • This group merged with another suffrage group in 1890 to be called the National American Woman Suffrage Association. • NAWSA was led by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw in New York City from 1900-1919. Carrie Chapman Catt Anna Howard Shaw
Women Organize • At this time, states were allowed to grant suffrage to women and Wyoming was the first to give women the right to vote as a state in 1890.
Women Organize • The Woman’s Suffrage Movement took many forms, but finally accomplished its goal by getting the 19th Amendment ratified by the states on August 18, 1920
Helping Women or Hurting Them? • Muller v Oregon (1908) gave protective laws to women in the workforce because they were weaker than men.
Better Working Conditions • Labor Unions continued to fight during this time period for better working conditions including: • Higher wages • Shorter hours • More safety and sanitation in the workplace • Anti-Child Labor policies
TR’s Square Deal • Roosevelt was worried that even though the public was concerned - nothing was happening. • He promised a Square Deal and focused on the 3 C’s: • Control of Corporations • Consumer Protection • Conservation of Natural Resources
Square Deal for Labor • TR began by helping with the coal miner strike in 1902 • Coal miners were demanding an increase in pay and shorter hours • Roosevelt threatened to use federal forces to achieve LABOR’S demands by operating the mines with federal forces until negotiations were complete
Changing the Government to Help Labor • TR Created the Departments of Commerce and Labor • The Bureau of Corporations was created to investigate businesses that were involved in interstate commerce
Trust-Busting • Elkins Act of 1903: Heavy fines now faced both RR’s that offered and businesses that accepted REBATES • Hepburn Act of 1906: Restrictions on free passes and ICC expanded • ICC could now set maximum railroad rates
Trust-Busting • While TR as a trust-buster is more myth than reality because he differentiated between good and bad trusts, TR did manage to do some damage to trusts. • Northern Securities Co that had a RR monopoly in the NW and was led by JP Morgan and James J Hill • TR really wanted to regulate the industries not just break them all up
Yummy Hotdogs • Upton Sinclair wrote the socialist novel, The Jungle, in 1906. • While his goal was to inform the public about the horrible conditions for the workers, he really just grossed them out. • Roosevelt is said to have exclaimed “I’ve been pizened”
Are you a Vegetarian yet? • TR passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 so federal inspectors could inspect any meat sold over interstate lines from moo-cow to hamburger • The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was also passed to prevent the “adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals”
TR - Visionary of Environmental Protection • People began to realize that America was quickly using up all of its natural resources • TR and some of his advisors believed that something had to be done
Early Laws of Environmental Protection • Desert Land Act of 1877 • You could buy government arid land for cheap if you irrigated it - not sure how this helps… • Similar to the Carey Act of 1894 • Forest Reserve Act of 1891 • The President could set aside public forests as national parks • 46 million acres were saved in the 1890’s
TR Helps the Environment TR at Yosemite in 1903 • Newlands Act of 1902 • The sale of Western Lands would help pay for irrigation projects • Set aside 125 million acres • Multiple Use resource management
Panic of 1907 • Short lived • Not enough currency • Some blamed TR for meddling
Aldrich-Vreeland Act • 1908 - authorized national banks to issue emergency currency using various collateral • Opened up way for Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Election of 1908 • TR leaves nominating Taft to follow him • TR forces Taft on the Republican Convention • William Jennings Bryan was the Democrat…again • Eugene Debs ran for the socialists and got over 400,000 votes!
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” Improve financialopportunities for American businesses. Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas. Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.
Taft the Trustbuster • Busted more than twice the Trusts as TR • Dissolved Standard Oil • Went after US Steel in 1911 even though TR approved of them
Payne-Aldrich Bill • Taft had gotten elected saying he was going to lower the tariff • Payne Aldrich Bill raised the tariff and Taft said it was “the best bill that the Republican party ever passed”
Taft and Conservation • Bureau of Mines to control mineral resources, rescued millions of acres of western coal lands • BUT… • Taft fired the beloved Gifford Pinchot when Pinchot argued with the Secretary of the Interior, Richard Ballinger over use of lands in the West for corporate development • Pinchot was a TR buddy
Taft Seems to Give Up on Progressives • Both the tariff and the firing of Pinchot were seen to give up on Progressivism • TR got back into the country in June of 1910 and attacked Taft and the government • Republicans lost the midterm election of 1910