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The Price of Anarchy in Auctions Part II: The Smoothness Framework

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  1. The Price of Anarchy in AuctionsPart II: The Smoothness Framework Jason Hartline Northwestern University Vasilis Syrgkanis Cornell University December 11, 2013

  2. Part II: High-level goals • PoA in auctions (as games of incomplete information): • Single-Item First Price, All-Pay, Second Price Auctions • Simultaneous Single Item Auctions • Position Auctions: GSP, GFP • Combinatorial auctions

  3. General Approach • Reduce analysis of complex setting to simple setting. • Conclusion for simple setting X, proved under restriction P, extends to complex setting Y • X: complete information PNE to Y: incomplete information BNE • X: single auction to Y: composition of auctions

  4. Best-Response Analysis • Objective in X is good because each player doesn’t want to deviate to strategy • Extension from setting X to setting Y: if best response argument satisfies condition P then conclusion extends to Y

  5. First Extension Theorem Complete info PNE to BNE with correlated values

  6. Target setting. First Price Bayes-Nash Equilibrium with asymmetric correlated values • Simple setting. Complete information Pure Nash Equilibrium • Thm. If proof of PNE PoA based on own-value based deviation argument then PoA of BNE also good First Extension Theorem Complete info PNE to BNE with correlated values References: RoughgardenSTOC’09 Lucier, PaesLeme EC’11 Roughgarden EC’12 Syrgkanis ‘12 Syrgkanis, Tardos STOC’13

  7. First-Price Auction Refresher • Highest bidder wins: • Pays his bid: • Quasi-Linear preferences: • Objective:

  8. First-Price Auction Target: BNE with correlated values • : correlated distribution • Conditional on value, maximizes utility: • Equilibrium Welfare: • Optimal Welfare: highest value bidder

  9. First-Price Auction Target: BNE with correlated values

  10. First-Price Auction Simpler: PNE and complete Information • : common knowledge • maximizes utility: • Equilibrium Welfare: • Optimal Welfare:

  11. First-Price Auction Simpler: PNE and complete Information

  12. First-Price Auction Simpler: PNE and complete Information Theorem. Proof.Highest value player can deviate to By PNE condition

  13. First-Price Auction Simpler: PNE and complete Information Theorem. Proof.Highest value player can deviate to

  14. Direct extensions • What if conclusions for PNE of complete information directly extended to: • incomplete information BNE • simultaneous composition of single-item auctions • Obviously: doesn’t carry over • Possible, but we need to restrict the type of analysis

  15. Problem in previous PNE proof • Recall. because highest value player doesn’t want to deviate to • Challenge. Don’t know or in incomplete information • Idea. Restrict deviation to not depend on these parameters

  16. First-Price Auction Simpler: PNE and complete Information Recall PoA=1 Proof Theorem. Proof.Highest value player can deviate to Can we find that depend only on ?

  17. Own-value deviations(price and other values oblivious) New Theorem. Proof. Each player can deviate to OR

  18. Own-value deviations(price and other values oblivious) New Theorem. Proof. Each player can deviate to

  19. Own-value deviations(price and other values oblivious) New Theorem. Proof. Each player can deviate to

  20. Own-value deviations(price and other values oblivious) New Theorem. Proof. Each player can deviate to

  21. Own-value deviations(price and other values oblivious) Key Deviation Property Smoothness Property New Theorem. Exists depending only on own value Proof. Each player can deviate to

  22. Smoothness via own-value deviations Exists depending only on own value For any bid vector

  23. Smoothness via own-value deviations Exists depending only on own value For any bid vector Note. Smoothness is property of auction not equilibrium

  24. Smoothness via own-value deviations Exists depending only on own value For any bid vector Applies to any auction: Not First-Price Auction specific

  25. Smoothness implies PoA Proof. If PNE then Note. Note.

  26. Finally First Extension Theorem. If PNE PoA proved by showing smoothness property via own-value deviations, then PoA bound extends to BNE with correlated values Note. Not specific to First-Price Auction

  27. Smoothness implies BNE PoA Proof. If BNE then ] Just redo PNE proof in expectation over values.

  28. Optimizing over • Is half value best own-value deviation? • Bid with support and

  29. Optimizing over • Bid with support and w.p.

  30. Optimizing over • Bid with support and w.p.

  31. Optimizing over • Bid with support and • So in fact: -smooth.

  32. RECAP • First Extension Thm. If proof of PNE PoA based on smoothness via own-value based deviations then PoA of BNE with correlated values also QUESTIONS? First Extension Theorem Complete info PNE to BNE with correlated values

  33. Second Extension Theorem Single auction to simultaneous auctions PNE complete information

  34. Target setting.Simultaneous single-item first price auctions with unit-demand bidders (complete information PNE). • Simple setting.Single-item first price auction (complete information PNE). • Thm. If proof of PNE PoA of single-item based on proving -smoothness via own-value deviation then PNE PoAof simultaneous auctions also . Second Extension Theorem Single auction to simultaneous auctions PNE complete information References: RoughgardenSTOC’09 Roughgarden EC’12 Syrgkanis ‘12 Syrgkanis, Tardos STOC’13

  35. Simultaneous First-Price AuctionsUnit-demand bidders Unit-Demand Valuation

  36. Simultaneous First-Price AuctionsUnit-demand bidders Unit-Demand Valuation

  37. Simultaneous First-Price Auctions Can we derive global efficiency guarantees from local smoothness of each first price auction? APPROACH: Prove smoothness of the global mechanism GOAL: Construct global deviation IDEA: Pick your item in the optimal allocation and perform the smoothness deviation for your local value , i.e.

  38. Simultaneous First-Price Auctions Smoothness locally: Summing over players: Implying smoothness property globally.

  39. Second Extension Theorem. If proof of PNE PoA of single-item auction based on proving -smoothness smoothness via own-value deviationthen PNE PoA of simultaneous auctions also .

  40. BNE PoA? • BNE PoA of simultaneous single-item auctions with correlated unit-demand values ? • Not really: deviation not oblivious to opponent valuations • Item in the optimal matching depends on values of opponents

  41. But Half-way there • What we showed: Exists depending only on valuation profile (not ) For any bid vector

  42. RECAP Second Extension Theorem. If proof of PNE PoA of single-item auction based on proving -smoothness then PNE PoA of simultaneous auctions also . Next we will extend above to BNE QUESTIONS? Second Extension Theorem Single auction to simultaneous auctions PNE complete information

  43. Third Extension Theorem Complete info PNE to BNE with independent values

  44. Target setting. First Price Bayes-Nash Equilibrium with asymmetric independent values • Simple setting. Complete information Pure Nash Equilibrium • Thm. If proof of PNE PoA based on -smoothness via valuation profile dependent deviation then PoA of BNE with independent values also Third Extension Theorem Complete info PNE to BNE with independent values References: Christodoulou et al. ICALP’08 Roughgarden EC’12 Syrgkanis ‘12 Syrgkanis, Tardos STOC’13

  45. Does this extend to BNE PoA? Smoothness via valuation profile deviations Exists depending only on valuation profile (not ) For any bid vector

  46. Recall First Extension Theorem. • If PNE PoA proved by showing smoothness property via own-value deviations, then PoA bound extends to BNE with correlated values • Relax First Extension Theorem to allow for dependence on opponents values • To counterbalance: assume independent values

  47. BNE (independent valuations) • Need to construct feasible BNE deviations • Each player random samples the others values and deviates as if that was the true values of his opponents • Above works out, due to independence of value distributions

  48. BNE (independent valuations) Utility of deviation of player In expectation over his own value too. Utility of deviation from a random sample of player who knows the values of all other players. But where players play non equilibrium strategies.

  49. BNE (independent valuations) Utility of deviation of player In expectation over his own value too. Utility of deviation from a random sample of player who knows the values of all other players. But where players play non equilibrium strategies.

  50. BNE (independent valuations) Sum of complete information setting deviating utilities Sum of deviating utilities