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Unit 2: Population

Unit 2: Population

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Unit 2: Population

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  1. Unit 2: Population

  2. Critical Issues in Population Geography More people are alive today than at any other time in human history The world’s population increased at a faster rate during the second half of the twentieth century than every before. Virtually all population growth today occurs in less developed countries (LDCs)

  3. Where Is the World’s Population Distributed? • Population concentrations • Two-thirds of the world’s population are in four regions: • East Asia • South Asia • Europe • Southeast Asia

  4. East Asia

  5. South Asia

  6. Europe

  7. Southeast Asia

  8. Population Distribution • Population by Country Figure 2-2

  9. Where Is the World’s Population Distributed? • Sparsely populated regions • The ecumene • People generally avoid: • Dry lands • Wet lands • Cold lands • High lands

  10. Ecumene Figure 2-4

  11. Where Is the World’s Population Distributed? • Population density • Arithmetic density • Physiological density • Agricultural density

  12. Measures of Density Table 2-1

  13. Questions • 1. Explain why Europe is one of the most populated regions. What about East Asia? • 2. Why is it important to study measures of density? • 3. Which of the four areas that people try to avoid living in would you be able tolerate?

  14. Where Has the World’s Population Increased? • Natural increase rate • The percentage by which a population grows in a year • Crude birth rate (CBR) • The number of births per 1,000 population • Crude death rate (CDR) • The number of deaths per 1,000 population • Doubling time • The number of years needed to double a population

  15. Country Comparisons • Birth Rate • Death Rate

  16. World Population Growth Figure 2-8

  17. Where Has the World’s Population Increased? • Fertility • Total fertility rate (TFR) • By country • Mortality • Infant mortality rate (IMR) • By country • Life expectancy • By country

  18. Figure 2-13 Figure 2-14 • Notice that places with high TFRs tend to have high IMRs and that places with low TFRs have low IMRs.

  19. Questions • 4. What region of the world will have higher birth rates? • 5. What region of the world will have the lowest total fertility rate?

  20. Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates? • Demographic transition • Four stages • Stage 1: Low growth • Agricultural revolution • Stage 2: High growth • Industrial Revolution • Stage 3: Moderate growth • Stage 4: Low growth • Zero population growth (ZPG)

  21. Demographic Transition Figure 2-15

  22. Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates? • Population pyramids • A bar graph showing a place’s age and sex composition • Shape of the pyramid is determined mainly by the CBR • Age distribution • Dependency ratio • Sex distribution • Sex ratio

  23. Population Pyramids Figure 2-19

  24. Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates? • Demographic transition & world population growth • Most countries = stage 2 or stage 3 of the Demographic Transition • Stages 2 and 3 are characterized by significant population growth • No country is in stage 1 of the demographic transition • It is easier to cause a drop in the CDR than in the CBR

  25. Questions • 6. What caused more developed countries to move from stage 1 to stage 2 of the demographic transition 200 years ago? • 7. Draw the population pyramid based on the info give: • 60% of the population is over 60. • Of the 60% most are women • There has been a birth explosion in the last 2 years.

  26. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? • Malthus on overpopulation • An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798): Population grows geometrically while food supply grows arithmetically • Criticism of Malthus includes the following: • Pessimistic viewpoint • Failure to consider technological innovation • Marxist critique

  27. Malthus: Theory & Reality Figure 2-25

  28. Question • 8. Was Malthus correct in his theory of overpopulation? Explain your answer.

  29. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? • Declining birth rates • Reasons for declining birth rates • Reliance on economic development • Distribution of contraceptives • Reducing birth rates with contraception

  30. Family Planning Figure 2-30

  31. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? • World health threats • The epidemiologic transition • Stage 1: Pestilence and famine • The Black Plague • Pandemics

  32. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? Figure 2-31 • World health threats • The epidemiologic transition • Stage 2: Receding pandemics • Cholera and Dr. John Snow

  33. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? • World health threats • The epidemiologic transition • Stage 3: Degenerative diseases • Most significant: Heart disease and cancer • Stage 4: Delayed degenerative diseases • Medical advances prolong life

  34. Why Might Overpopulation be a Concern? • World health threats • The epidemiologic transition • A possible stage 5: Reemergence of infectious diseases? • Three reasons why it might be happening: • Evolution • Poverty • Improved travel

  35. The Most Lethal Infectious Disease: AIDS Figure 2-33

  36. Questions • 9. Why do you think the United States is not in the top percentile of family planning use? • 10. What discovery did Dr. Snow make about the cholera cases in London?