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One country, two systems

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  1. One country, two systems Cultural Values in Chinese and HK TV Commercials Kara Chan, Hong Cheng

  2. Why study cultural values in advertising? • Values: shared ideas about what is morally right and desirable or what “ought to be” (Klopf, 1995) • Cultural value: “governing ideas and guiding principles for thought and action” (Srikandath, 1991) that “permeate a culture” (Porter & Samovar, 2000) • Cultural values in advertising: “a powerful force that shape consumers’ motivations, life-styles, and product choices (Tse, Belk & Zhou, 1989) • Advertising: a “distorted mirror’’ of cultural values, only reflecting certain lifestyles and values that serve sellers’ interests (Pollay, 1986, 1990)

  3. Four main groups of studies on cultural values in advertising • Compare values in Eastern and Western cultures • Focus on values in one selected country • Focus on a selected product category or a selected value • compare cultural values in similar cultures

  4. Why China and HK ? • HK’s influences on China • Handover: any impact on HK’s advertising • only one study on China, HK and Taiwan’s print advertising in 1989

  5. Research questions • What are the differences between the cultural values reflected in Chinese and Hong Kong TV commercials? • What factors account for the differences, if any?

  6. Hypotheses • Hong Kong commercials use more Western values • Chinese commercials use more utilitarian values • Chinese commercials reflect a more rapid change in values

  7. Sampling of commercials • Chinese: CCTV, GTV and ZTV • Hong Kong: TVB Jade and Pearl, ATV Home and International • 1993 and 1998 summer and winter • Chinese sample: 727 commercials • 323 in 1993; 404 in 1998 • Hong Kong sample: 660 commercials • 320 in 1993; 340 in 1998 • Total: 1387

  8. Coding • Coding frame: 32 cultural values from Cheng and Schweitzer’s (1996) • Unit of analysis: individual commercial • Code 1 most dominant value for each ad • Coded by two pairs of coders • Inter-coder reliability: 87% for Chinese sample, 88% for HK sample

  9. Profile of samples

  10. Dominant values of Chinese TVC

  11. Dominant values of HK commercials

  12. Difference between Chinese and HK commercials • China: use more collectivism, courtesy, family, modernity, natural, nurturance, patriotism, respect for elderly, technology and work (more symbolic values) • HK: use more adventure, beauty, convenience, economy, effectiveness, enjoyment, health, quality, safety and sex (more Western values)

  13. Change in cultural values • China • 10 out of 32 values have significant change in percentages over the time period • two dominant values -- “family” and “technology” doubled in 1998 • HK • 5 out of 32 values have significant change in percentages over the time period • all dominant values did not show change

  14. Result of hypothesis testing • H1: accepted, HK ad more Westernized • H2: rejected, HK ad more utilitarian and Chinese more symbolic • H3: accepted, Chinese ad reflect more change over time

  15. Factors influence change in cultural values • Using two-way analysis of variance, with product category and time as moderating variables • product category more influential; time less influential • same product category tend to use the same set of cultural values over the period of five years

  16. Influence of product category is different in Chinese and HK commercials

  17. Conclusion • China and HK commercials are very different • HK: a mature consumer market in a capitalistic environment; western product/commercial origin; back to basic approach • China: a developing consumer market in a socialist society; establishing brand images and associating with certain lifestyles • product category more influential than time (new finding) • Handover in 1997 does not have strong impact on cultural values of HK TV advertising