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  1. THE MASS MEDIA The Media

  2. Enduring Understanding 1. The media can shape thought and ideas. 2. The new media has greater reach than the traditional media today.

  3. CONTENT • 1. Definition of the Media • 2. Development of the Media • 3. Role of the Media • 4. Effects of the Media • 5. Impact of New Media • 6. Concept of a Free Press

  4. Issues affecting Mass Media • Influence values & behavior of people SOCIAL 4. Effects Agenda setting POLICTICAL 2. Development of Media Promote Pro-Social Behavior EDUCATION Traditional Media CULTURAL Cultural Imperialism New Media 1. Definition of Media TECHNOLOGY 5. Aspects of the MEDIA Press Freedom Censorship • To inform • To educate • To entertainer • To influence • A Watchdog 3. Role of media in Society Objectivity

  5. 1. Definition of the Media Dictionary Definition • a medium of communication that is designed to reach the mass of the people Source: Webster Further Explanation: • defining mass media is no longer clear cut or simple.

  6. 2. Development of the Media 1: 17th Century – Newspapers 2: 1900 – Films 3: 1922 – Radio Stage 4: 1930 – TV Stage 5: 20th Century – New Media

  7. What is New Media? • Interactive forms of digital communication that use the Internet (i.e. online) • Heavily dependent on technology • Not restrictive -- anybody can use it • Available anytime, anywhere, and it is ‘free’!

  8. Traditional Media • Newspapers • Films • Radio • Television • New Media • Internet • Websites • Blogs • Social Media

  9. Internet connection world wide

  10. 3. Role of the Media • To inform • To educate • To entertain • To influence • The 4th Estate

  11. To influence The impact of the media cannot be underestimated. SOCIAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL


  13. 4th Estate of the Government What are the 3 estates? • The Media is a political watchdog (4th estate) in a democracy. • Media responsibility Legislature Judiciary Executive

  14. The Media As A Watchdog What is the role of the media in a democracy? • Checking abuse of power • Redistributing power and political influence back to the people • Provide people with correct, up-to-date information • Foster public debate and political engagement

  15. 4. Effect of the Media a. De-sensitization Inpsychology, desensitization is defined as the diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative or aversive stimulus after repeated exposure to it. Desensitization also refers to reduced responsiveness to actual violence caused by exposure to violence in the media. • Columbine High School massacre • murdered a total of 12 students and one teacher • injured 24 students • gun culture • the use of drugs • Internet addiction • Violent video games

  16. b. Propaganda Media and Propaganda What is propaganda? • Information, especially of a misleading nature, used to promote a particular political cause or point of view Implications: • When media freedom is curtailed, the media can become a tool for those in power to further their own political ambitions

  17. Demonising – The term has since been expanded to refer to any characterization of individuals, groups, or political bodies as evil.

  18. 5. Impact of New Media • Re-shaping journalism – transformedinformation gathering, editing, packaging, dissemination. • Reduced gatekeeping powers - of major news organizations. • Information overload – multiple sources, real time news available. • Citizen journalism- a new phenomenon

  19. The internet “is perhaps the greatest source of hope for re-establishing an open communications environment in which the conversation of democracy can flourish”. – Al Gore in The Assault on Reason

  20. Citizen Journalism • when private individuals do what professional reporters do, i.e. report information • It is usually found online • information can take many forms - a podcast, a Youtube Video, Facebook Post, etc. • What are the advantages and disadvantages of Citizen Journalism?

  21. Advantages of Citizen Journalism • the coverage of local events happenings • alert the media to investigate • photographs and videos in real time • replaces the traditional media when it is bias.

  22. Disadvantages of Citizen Journalism • lack of rigor, contextualization and depth • views are biased and unbalanced • Danger of being libellous • Cloak of anonymity

  23. Can the media be relied upon to tell the truth? CNN Caught Staging News Segments on Syria With Actors Posted on September 1, 2013 by friendsofsyria Anderson Cooper and CNN have been caught staging fake news about Syria to justify military intervention.

  24. Problems of Participatory Politics • Over-optimism in the positive effects of New Media • New Media creates noise, not necessarily influence • Questionable material. • The New Media can spur action before society is ready. internet “is perhaps the greatest source of hope for re-establishing an open communications environment in which the conversation of democracy can flourish”. – Al Gore in The Reason

  25. 6. Concept of a Free Press (Media) • Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." • The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees the freedom of the press in the United States.

  26. FREEDOM OF NEWS MEDIA • Publication should not have prior censorship • Attack on government or party official should not be punished. • No compulsion to publish anything to retract. • No restriction on collection of information. • Professional autonomy to Journalists. • No need for permit for publication. “All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of society. We can vulgarize that society. We can brutalize it. Or we can help lift it onto a higher level”. William Bernbach American advertising reative director

  27. “Western liberals often argue that press freedom is a necessary ingredient of democracy and that it is the fourth estate to check elected governments, especially against corruption. But a free press by western standards does not always lead to a clean and efficient government or contribute to economic freedom and prosperity.” SM Goh (2005) • The media of Singapore play an important role in Singapore’s development. • Borders ranked Singapore 149 out of 179 countries in the Press Freedom Index. • Public Order Act 2009

  28. Media in Singapore • Highly regulated environment. • Government is not tolerant of perceived baseless attacks on officials. • Print and broadcast journalists practise self-censorship. • Media players have close link to the state. • “Objectionable” internet content is taken down and those who posted it charged. • Websites with large following must registered with the authorities.

  29. Censorship • Censorship is all around us in different forms. • What should be read, seen or heard. • Enemy of democracy and freedom of speech • Who Censors? • The Government censors information and news that it deems : • unfit for the country • might potentially cause instability in the country. • Is a threat to its sovereignty.

  30. Is censorship beneficial? • Promotes stability • Filters unnecessary/ misleading information that causes social, political or/and economic problems. Turkey's YouTube and Twitter bans show a government in serious trouble

  31. Possible to enforce censorship? • Ways to enforce censorship: - withhold/ ban information; - impose punishment for those who do not conform to standards. • How effective are these methods in this current age and level of technology?

  32. Objectivity of the Media Why do we need objectivity? • Free press is an extension of Freedom in a democracy. • In a democracy the citizens must be given accurate reporting of facts. • With the facts, the people can decide what they want and who they want to elect. • The journalist merely facilitates the process.

  33. Objectivity of the Media • Such content is filtered through society’s value systems and limits of tolerance are negotiated with content regulatory bodies & other interest groups. • OB markers – control to ensure stability • Truth and objectivity may be compromised Self-censorship: Alternative methods such as educating users on media literacy, and practicing restraint from making inflammatory statement.

  34. Essay Questions • Can the media ever be relied upon to convey the truth? • To what extent does the media dictate our way of life? • How far is it true that the Internet empowers ordinary people? • ‘The greatest rival of newspapers today is the blogger.’ Discuss.

  35. Enduring Understanding 1. The media can shape thought and ideas. 2. The new media has greater reach than the traditional media today.