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Health Promotion Theory

Health Promotion Theory. Definition of Health Promotion. Health promotion  The process of enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health . (WHO, 1986).

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Health Promotion Theory

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  1. Health Promotion Theory

  2. Definition of Health Promotion Health promotion  The process of enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. (WHO, 1986) control over : the act or fact of controlling; power to direct or regulate; ability to use effectively

  3. Area of Health Promotion • People : Individual, community • Determinants of health : sosio economic, cultural, environment, organization, policy • Improve health needs effort  theory

  4. Most health behavior and health promotion theories were adapted from the social and behavioral sciences, but applying them to health issues often requires that one be familiar with epidemiology and the biological sciences.

  5. Health behavior and health promotion theories draw upon various disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, consumer behavior, and marketing.

  6. What is theory • A theory presents a systematic way of understandingevents or situations. • It is a set of concepts, definitions, and propositions that explain or predict these events or situations by illustrating the relationships between variables. • Theories must be applicable to a broad variety of situations.

  7. Benefits • Theories are useful during the various stages of planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions. • Program planners can use theories to shape the pursuit of answers to Why? What? How?

  8. Benefits • Theoriescan be used to guide the search for why people are not following public health and medical advice or not caring for themselves in healthy ways. • They can help pinpoint what one needs to know before developing and organizing an intervention program.

  9. Benefits • They can provide insight into how to shape program strategies to reach people and organizations and make an impact on them. • They also help to identify what should be monitored, measured, and compared in a program evaluation

  10. Benefits • Theory provides a road map for studying problems, developing appropriate interventions, and evaluating their successes. • It can inform the planner’s thinking during all of these stages, offering insights that translate into stronger programs.

  11. Benefits • Theory can also help to explain the dynamics of health behaviors, including processes for changing them, and the influences of the many forces that affect health behaviors, including social and physical environments. • Theory can also help planners identify the most suitable target audiences, methods for fostering change, and outcomes for evaluation.

  12. Explanatory & Change Theory • Explanatory T : describes the reasons why a problem exists. It guides the search for factors that contribute to a problem, and can be changed(e.g. HBM, TRA-TPB) • Change T : guides the development of health interventions. It spells out concepts that can be translated into program messages and strategies, and offers a basis for program evaluation. (e.g. CO-CD, diffusion of innovation)

  13. Ecological Perspective • Contemporary health promotion involves more than simply educating individuals about healthy practices. • It includes efforts to change organizational behavior, as well as the physical and socialenvironment of communities.

  14. Ecological Perspective • It is also about developing and advocating for policies that support health, such as economic incentives. • Health promotion programs that seek to address health problems across this spectrum employ a range of strategies, and operate onmultiple levels.

  15. Ecological Perspective • The ecological perspective emphasizes the interactionbetween, and interdependence of, factors within and across all levels of a health problem. • It highlights people’s interactions with their physical and socio­ cultural environments.

  16. Ecological Perspective Two key concepts of the ecological perspective help to identify intervention points for promoting health: • first, behavior both affects, and is affected by, multiple levels of influence; • second, individual behavior both shapes, and is shaped by, the social environment (reciprocal causation)

  17. First concept McLeroy and colleagues (1988) identified five levels of influence for healthrelated behaviors and conditions: • intrapersonal or individual factors • interpersonal factors • institutional or organizational factors • community factors • public policy factors

  18. First concept

  19. Second concept • The second key concept of an ecological perspective, reciprocal causation, suggests that people both influence, and are influenced by , those around them.

  20. Theories in Intrapersonal Level • Individuals participate in groups, manage organizations, elect and appoint leaders, and legislate policy. • Thus, achieving policy and institutional change requires influencing individuals. • In addition to exploring behavior, individuallevel theories focus on intrapersonal factors • Intrapersonal factors include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, motivation, self-concept, developmental history, past experience, and skills

  21. Theories in Interpersonal Level • At the interpersonal level, theories of health behavior assume individuals exist within, and are influenced by, a social environment. • The opinions, thoughts, behavior, advice, and support of the people surrounding an individual influence his or her feelings and behavior, and the individual has a reciprocal effect on those people.

  22. Theories in Interpersonal Level • The social environment includes family members, coworkers, friends, health professionals, and others. • Because it affects behavior, the social environment also impacts health. • Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is one of the most frequently used and robust health behavior theories.

  23. Theories in Community Level • Initiatives serving communities and populations, not just individuals, are at the heart of public health approaches to preventing and controlling disease. • Community-level models explore how social systems function and change and how to mobilize community members and organizations.

  24. Theories in Community Level • They offer strategies that work in a variety of settings, such as health care institutions, schools, worksites, community groups, and government agencies. • Communities are often understood in geographical terms, but they can be defined by other criteria too. • For instance, there are communities of shared interests (e.g., the artists’ community) or collective identity (e.g., the African American community).

  25. Theories in Intrapersonal Level • The Health Belief Model (HBM) • The Stages of Change (Transtheoretical) Model • TRA-TPB(Theory of Reason Action and Theory of Planned Behavior) • The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) • WHO • Green • Snehandu B. Kar

  26. Health Belief Model • It was developed in the 1950s by a group of U.S. Public Health Service social psychologists • People’sbeliefs about whether or not they were susceptible to disease, and their perceptions of the benefits of trying to avoid it, influenced their readiness to act

  27. Health Belief Model Peopleare ready to act if they: • Believe they are susceptible to the condition (perceived susceptibility) • Believe the condition has serious consequences (perceived severity) • Believe taking action would reduce their susceptibility to the condition or its severity (perceived benefits)

  28. Health Belief Model • Believe costs of taking action (perceived barriers) are outweighed by the benefits • Are exposed to factors that prompt action (e.g., a television ad or a reminder from one’s physician to get a mammogram) (cue to action) • Are confident in their ability to successfully perform an action (self-efficacy)

  29. Health Belief Model (HBM)

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