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Endocrine System

Endocrine System. Organs and Disorders. Endocrine versus Exocrine glands. Endocrine – ductless, releases hormones into intercellular space such as the blood stream Hypothalamus, pituitary gland Exocrine – releases contents into ducts or outside body Ex. Sweat glands, sebaceous glands.

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Endocrine System

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  1. Endocrine System Organs and Disorders

  2. Endocrine versus Exocrine glands • Endocrine – ductless, releases hormones into intercellular space such as the blood stream • Hypothalamus, pituitary gland • Exocrine – releases contents into ducts or outside body • Ex. Sweat glands, sebaceous glands

  3. Steroid versus protein hormone • Steroid – hormone that is lipid soluble, does through cell membrane of target organ to nucleus. • Protein (non-steroid) – hormone that needs a 2nd messenger to send message to nucleus since it can not go through cell membrane on its own.

  4. Protein SteroidHormone Hormone

  5. Homeostasis

  6. Prostaglandin – tissue hormones – produced in tissue and only travels short distance • Hormone – chemical messenger released by gland and travels to target organ via the blood • Tropic Hormone – hormone that stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete hormones • Ex. TSH, FSH

  7. Pituitary Gland • Lies deep in brain, attached to hypothalmus • Anterior pituitary – adenohypophysis (gland) • Tropic hormones – stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete hormone • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)– thyroid • Adrenocorticotropic hormone –(ACTH) adrenal cortex • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – ovarian follicles • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)- ovulating hormone • Growth hormone – promotes normal growth • Prolactin – lactogenic hormone (breast development for lactation)

  8. Disorders of AP • Growth hormone • Hypersecretion – gigantism, Acromegaly, hyperglycemia • Hyposecretion – dwarfism • Prolactin • Hyper – inappropriate lactation in men and non-nursing women • Hypo – insufficient lactation in nursing women

  9. Posterior pituitary • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – reabsorption of water from urine in kidney to blood, decrease urine volume • Oxytocin – stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterus, initiate and maintain labor, stimulates milk letdown

  10. Disorders of PP • ADH • Hyper – abnormal water retention • Hypo – diabetes insipidus – elimination of too much urine – dehydration • Oxytocin • Hyper – increase milk flow • Hypo – prolonged labor

  11. Hypothalmus • Produces ADH and oxytocin (PP only releases them) • Releasing hormones – stimulates Anterior pituitary to release hormones • Inhibiting hormones – Inhibits anterior pit. release of hormones Hypothalmus functions in nervous and endocrine systems – dominant role in regulation of many body functions: body temp, appetite, thirst

  12. Thyroid • Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) – speed up cells release of energy from foods, stimulate cellular metabolism • Calcitonin – maintains homeostasis of blood calcium, decreases the amount of calcium in the blood, act on bone to inhibit its breakdown, therefore calcium does not move out of bone.

  13. Thyroid disorders • Hyperthyroidism, increase metabolic rate, lose weight, restless, excessively active • Exophthalmus – protruding eyes • Graves disease – inherited, hyperthyroidism, bulging eyes • Hypothyroidism – under secretion of TH • Goiter – low intake of iodine, enlargement of thyroid to compensate for lack of iodine • Cretinism – low metabolic rate, retarded growth and sexual development • Myxedema – lessened mental and physical vigor, weight gain, loss of hair, accumulation of mucous fluid (eyes)

  14. Parathyroid glands • Posterior of thyroid, Usually 4, small • parathyroid hormone – increase concentration of calcium in blood (opposite of calcitonin) fig. 11-12 • Hyper – hypercalcemia • Hypo - hypocalcemia

  15. Adrenal Glands – top of kidneys • Adrenal cortex – outer part, corticoids • Mineralocorticoids, MC’s – aldosterone • Control mineral salts in blood (increase sodium, decrease potassium) • Glucocorticoids (cortisol, hydrocortisone) • Maintain normal glucose concentration and blood pressure • Sex hormones

  16. Adrenal Medulla • Inner portion of adrenal gland • Epinephrine, Norepinephrine – secreted during stressful situations, works with sympathetic nervous system (adrenaline)

  17. Adrenal disorders • Hypersecretion of GC’s – usually because of a tumor – Cushing syndrome • Moon face, buffalo bump due to redistribution of body fat, can remove tumor • Hypersecretion in inner zone – sex hormones called androgens, results in secondary sex characteristics • In women, caused by virilizing tumor • Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex - Addison disease – muscle weakness, low blood sugar

  18. Pancreatic islets – islets of Langerhans • Scattered among pancreatic cells in pancreas • Glucagon – increases the blood glucose concentration • Insulin – decreases blood glucose concentration by moving it out of the blood • Hypersecretion - hypoglycemia • Hyposecretion - type 1 diabetes mellitus – high glucose levels in blood • Type 2 diabetes – abnormality of insulin receptors

  19. Additional endocrine glands • Ovary • Ovarian follicles – estrogen, feminizing hormone • Corpus luteum – progesterone • Testes • Testosterone – masculinizing hormone • Thymus – in mediastinum, contains WBC’s • Thymosin – several hormones that play in important role in the development and function of the body’s immune system

  20. More endocrine glands… • Placenta – temporarily produce hormones • Chorionic ganadotropins (pregnancy test indicators), estrogen, progesterone • Pineal gland – near 3rd ventricle in brain • Melatonin – regulates puberty and menstrual cycle in females • 3rd eye – optic nerve, increase at night, internal clock and sleep cycle, supplements help to sleep • SAD – seasonal affective disorder – high levels

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