Lesson Two Hiroshima —the “Liveliest” City in Japan Jacques Danvoir Jacques Danvoir 雅克·丹瓦 Lecturer: Meng Fanyan
Teaching objectives • To get to know some background information about Hiroshima, the atomic bomb and the Second World War. • To know the way of developing a piece of narration. • To master the writing techniques employed by the author in the text.
Teaching plan • 1. Warming-up questions • 2. Background information • 3. Writing style and skills • 4. Rhetorical devices • 5. Language points • 6. Exercises after the text • 7. Homework
Background Information 1. The City of Hiroshima 2. The first dropping of an atomic bomb ---“Little Boy” 3. Some important dates related to WWII
Warming up activities • What do you know about Japan? • What do you know about the city of Hiroshima? • How much do you know about WWII?
The City of Hiroshima • Geography of the city • Brief history of Hiroshima • The map of Japan • Effect of the atomic bombing on the city
General introduction • Hiroshima is a city in Japan. The United States dropped the fist atomic-bomb here during World War Ⅱ, Hiroshima was broken into pieces. • But today Hiroshima has become a modern city. In order to remember the lesson forever, Japanese built the peace park around the memorial building which was the center of bombarding. There are three memorials and a museum in the park.
Many people who love peace come from every corner in the world and salute to the memorials expressing their hatred of the war. In the museum you may see many pictures taken during the war and some remains. Through tape recorder guide you may hear the living people’s speech. Many peace pigeons gather in the square of the park to welcome travelers. • http://www.city.hiroshima.jp/shimin/heiwa/peaceenglish.html
A "City of Peace" Hiroshima overcame the tragic atomic bombing to become a city that symbolizes peace and extols (praise赞美,颂扬) humanity. The A-bomb experience is the wellspring of Hiroshima’s continual plea for the abolition of nuclear weapons. Along with this, to preserve the sanctity (神圣,圣洁) of human life, personal dignity, and the opportunity to lead a tranquil life in a comfortable environment, we intend to be a city that contributes to lasting world peace through national, regional, and interpersonal exchange.
A "City of Culture" • While preserving our plentiful water, greenery, and natural environment to create a safe, comfortable, pleasant, and high-quality urban environment, we intend to be a city where people lead energetic, healthy, comfortable, and worthwhile lives, an energetic city that attracts people, a city that fosters culture and humanity.
An "International City" • Taking advantage of the refined sensibilities and natural creativity of its people and its wealth of technology and culture, the City of Hiroshima will promote vigorous international exchanges, cooperation, and joint activities in business, culture, sports, academics, and other fields. At the same time, as the core city of the Chugoku-Shikoku Region, it seeks to become a vital, outward-looking hub with sufficient urban functions and infrastructure to support these activities.
National Name: Nippon Capital: Tokyo Four main islands: Honshu (本州) Hokkaido (北海道) Kyushu (九州) Shikoku (四国)
Further information Hiroshima, a city on southwestern Honshû Island,along the Seto Inland Sea,capital of Hiroshima Prefecture (日本的县）, at the head of Hiroshima Bay. The city was founded in 1594 andis rich in nature with its surrounding picturesque mountains that are ever changing with the four seasons and its six rivers that flow through it. Hiroshima grew rapidly as a castle town and commercial city, and after 1868 it was developed as a military center.
On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-1945), the first atomic bomb to be used against an enemy position was dropped on the city by the United States Army Air Forces. According to U.S. estimates 70,000 people were killed or missing as a result of the bomb and many more were made homeless.
The blast (爆炸)also destroyed more than 10 sq km of the city, completely destroying 68 percent of Hiroshima’s buildings; another 24 percent were damaged. Every August 6 since 1947, thousands participate in interfaith（不同宗教团体） services in the Peace Memorial Park（公墓）built on the site where the bomb exploded. In 1949 the Japanese dedicated Hiroshima as an international shrine (圣地) of peace.
Amid the ashes, Hiroshima overcame unbearable grief and suffering to set about its reconstruction. In 1949, the national government enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law, designed to help reconstruct Hiroshima as a "peace memorial city." The wisdom and hard work of the people of Hiroshima, with generous assistance from within Japan and abroad, led to a remarkable recovery.
After the war, the city was largely rebuilt, and commercial activities were resumed. Machinery, automobiles, food processing, and the brewing (酿造) of sake (日本米酒)are the main industries. The surrounding area, although mountainous, has fertile valleys where silk, rice, and wheat are produced.
广岛是位于日本最大的岛屿--本州西南部的一座海湾城市。广岛是日本本州广岛县首府，南临濑户内海的广岛湾，地处太田川三角洲。广岛县面积８４６３平方公里。人口34万，日本第七大城市。五条河流呈扇形从市区穿过奔向濑户内海。整个城市就是建立在这样的冲积平原上的。在历史上，广岛就是以军事,教育,工业等闻名的西日本繁华重镇。十九世纪中叶后广岛逐渐成为军事重地。 • １９４５年，第二次世界大战已接近尾声。德国法西斯于５月８日无条件投降。７月２６日，美国、英国和中国三国发表“波茨坦宣言”，敦促日本迅速无条件投降，但日本政府置之不理。
为了迫使日本迅速投降，１９４５年８月６日清晨，美军一架Ｂ－２９轰炸机飞临日本广岛市区上空。８时１５分，轰炸机投下一颗炸弹。这颗炸弹带着降落伞徐徐落向市中心，在距地面５８０米的空中爆炸。在巨大冲击波的作用下，广岛市的建筑全部倒塌，全市３４.３万人口中有７８１５０人当日死亡。这颗炸弹就是美军研制的代号为“小男孩”的原子弹。 “小男孩”铀弹，长３米，直径０.７米，重约４吨，内装６０公斤高浓铀。为了迫使日本迅速投降，１９４５年８月６日清晨，美军一架Ｂ－２９轰炸机飞临日本广岛市区上空。８时１５分，轰炸机投下一颗炸弹。这颗炸弹带着降落伞徐徐落向市中心，在距地面５８０米的空中爆炸。在巨大冲击波的作用下，广岛市的建筑全部倒塌，全市３４.３万人口中有７８１５０人当日死亡。这颗炸弹就是美军研制的代号为“小男孩”的原子弹。 “小男孩”铀弹，长３米，直径０.７米，重约４吨，内装６０公斤高浓铀。 • １９４５年８月９日上午１１时０２分，美军又用Ｂ－２９轰炸机将第二颗原子弹“胖子”投在长崎市。“胖子”是一颗钚(bu)弹，长约３.６米，直径１.５米，重约４.９吨，爆高５０３米。爆炸使长崎市２３万人口中有１０万余人当日死伤和失踪，城市６０％－７０％的建筑物被毁。
Atomic Bomb 08:15 AM, Aug 6, 1945 “Little boy”
On August 6, 1945, by order of President Harry S. Truman(杜鲁门 ), the 1st Atomic bomb “Little Boy” was exploded over a point near the centre of Hiroshima, destroying almost everything. The damage beyond this area was considerable（very large), and over 70,000 people were killed instantly. Many more later died of injuries and the effects of radiation.
The explosion produces great amounts of heat, a shock wave and intense radiation. The region of the explosion becomes radioactively contaminated (污染) and radioactive products may be deposited (沉积) elsewhere as fallout(辐射微尘).
Casualties (伤亡人员） numbered nearly 130,000. Survivors are still dying of leukaemia [lju:’ki:miə] (白血病), pernicious （[pə:’niʃəs]有害的）anaemia [ə’ni:miə](贫血病) and other diseases inducedby radiation. Almost 98% of the buildings were destroyed or severely damaged.
The Japanese dedicated post-war Hiroshima to peace. A destroyed area named "Peace City" has been set aside as a memorial. A peace Park was built. A special hospital built here treats people suffering from exposure to radiation and conducts research into its effects.
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony • Every year on 6 August, "A-bomb Day," the City of Hiroshima holds the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony to console the victims of the atomic bomb and to pray for the realization of lasting world peace. • The ceremony is held in the morning from 8:00, in front of the Memorial Cenotaph with many citizens including the families of the deceased. • During the ceremony, a one-minute silence was observed at 8:15 for the victims, at the time of the atomic bomb's explosion.
Lantern Ceremony • And in the eveningof the same day, Lantern ceremony is held to send off the spirits of the victims on lanterns with peace messages floated on the waters of the Motoyasu River.