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Pre-history. Pre-historic = before written records Two periods of pre-history to know Paleolithic Neolithic. Pre-history. Paleolithic (Old) Stone age period Stone primary material for tools Hunter-gathers Nomadic lifestyle. Pre-history. Neolithic Age (New) stone age

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  1. Pre-history • Pre-historic = before written records • Two periods of pre-history to know • Paleolithic • Neolithic

  2. Pre-history • Paleolithic • (Old) Stone age period • Stone primary material for tools • Hunter-gathers • Nomadic lifestyle

  3. Pre-history • Neolithic Age • (New) stone age • Stone still primary tool material • Agriculture • Domestication of animals • Some settlement • Some nomadic groups

  4. 1st Agricultural Revolution Neolithic Age Paleolithic Age

  5. Neolithic Age PeopleStart toSettle DevelopCivilization

  6. Civilization • A form of culture, characterized by cities,specialized workers, complex institutions, record-keeping and advanced technology

  7. Civilization • To be a civilization, society must have a majority of these: • Cities Specialized labor • Government Science & tech • Religion Art • Taxes Social classes • Written language

  8. Tigris & Euphrates • Located in modern Iraq • Known as Mesopotamia (land between 2 rivers) • Known as Fertile Crescent • Look for the only green in the brownish Middle east on the map • Rivers empty into Persian Gulf

  9. Tigris & Euphrates • The geography does not help • Unpredictable flooding • No natural barriers to invasion • Plenty of fresh water for farming and drinking • Access to trade/travel & cultural diffusion • Silt deposited by rivers

  10. Tigris & Euphrates • Geography does not help, but problems solved • For defense, walls of mud bricks were built • Trade of grain, cloth and tools brought in natural raw materials like stone, wood and metal

  11. Tigris & Euphrates • Main crops grown were barley & wheat • Surpluses produced led to development of different civilizations in the region

  12. Tigris & Euphrates • Cities associated with Mesopotamia • Sumer • Akkad • Babylon • Ur

  13. Tigris & Euphrates • Sumer • Polytheism • Run by soldiers • Temples called Ziggurats • Invented sail, plow, wheel & 1st to use bronze • Developed geometry & arithmetic

  14. Tigris & Euphrates • Sumer • Developed arches, columns, ramps • Developed cuneiform (wedge writing in wet mud which was allowed to dry)

  15. Tigris & Euphrates • Akkad • Sargon of Akkad conquered Sumer • Created world’s first empire • Dynasty lasted 200 years

  16. Tigris & Euphrates • Babylon • Based on Euphrates river • Empire hit peak under Hammurabi • Hammurabi’s Code

  17. Tigris & Euphrates • Hammurabi’s Code • Needed single, unified code of law to unify people • Written in stone • Placed throughout the empire • “eye for an eye” • Law applied to everyone, but applied differently to men/women & rich/poor

  18. Written Law Codes • 10 Commandments • Hammurabi’s Code • Draco’s Code • 12 Tables • Justinian’s Code • Napoleonic Code

  19. Nile River Valley • Geographic Issues • Floods predictably (develop calendar) • River deposits silt on banks • Access to travel/trade • Grow papyrus (turn into paper) • River flows north into Mediterranean Sea • Egyptians forced to live close to river (little cultural diffusion)

  20. Nile River Valley • Egypt = “gift of the Nile” • Without the river there is no Egyptian civilization • Silt very fertile • Desert very harsh • Irrigation ditches to water crops • Surpluses led to civilization

  21. Nile River Valley • Egypt • Polytheism • Kings (pharaohs were god-kings) • Egyptian government was theocracy (based on religious teaching/rules)

  22. Nile River Valley • Egypt • Pyramids were actually tombs for pharaohs • Pharaohs were mummified • Bodies dried and preserved for use in the afterlife

  23. Nile River Valley • Egypt • Writing developed called hieroglyphics • Glyphs are symbols/pictures • First written on stone • Hieroglyphics written on early paper made from papyrus

  24. Nile River Valley • Egypt • Developed very accurate calendar • Developed arithmetic & geometry • First to use stone columns • Developed early medical procedures for broken bones, wounds & fevers

  25. Indus River Valley • Indus became India • Indus River starts in Himalaya mountains & flows to Arabian Sea • Himalayas natural boundary • Unpredictable flooding

  26. Indus River Valley • Indus sites not fully discovered yet • No kings/queens known • Few available records • Was largest empire until Persia develops 1000 years later

  27. Indus River Valley • Two main cities of the Indus Valley • Harappa • Mohenjo-Daro • Both carefully planned & laid out in a grid pattern • Structures built of oven-fired bricks • Homes had indoor plumbing

  28. Indus River Valley • Archaeologists believe the 2 cities had strong organized government • Food seemed to be in good supply • City planning indicates development of mathematical skills • Indus first to cultivate cotton • Polytheistic religious beliefs

  29. Huang He River Valley • China’s geography has isolated it • Chinese developed belief that China was the center of the Earth & source of all civilization • China to south & southwest hemmed in by Tien Shan & Himalaya mountains

  30. Huang He River Valley • China’s history began in Huang He Valley • People learned to farm during the Neolithic Age • The yellow soil particles in the river give it its name “Yellow” • Also known as “China’s Sorrow” because of the unpredictable flooding

  31. Huang He River Valley • The flooding is due in part to the loess in the water that raises the level of the river • Flooding has often been disastrous • First Chinese in the valley to develop were the Shang • Zhou overthrew the Shang • Developed Mandate of Heaven idea

  32. Huang He River Valley • Mandate of Heaven says that the gods allowed a dynasty to rule until that dynasty got old & corrupt • New dynasty was given new Mandate of Heaven to over throw old • This changing of dynasties is called the Dynastic Cycle

  33. Dynastic Cycle Old Dynasty New Dynasty Problems • Brings peace • Builds roads • Land to peasants • Protects people • Floods • Quakes • Revolts • Invaders • Too many taxes • No protection • Unfair treatment • No building

  34. Huang He River Valley • By 1000 BC Chinese had develop silk production • Chinese also produced first books under the Zhou • Also produced porcelain, writing, coined money and cast iron

  35. Other Civilizations to Consider • Indo-European Civilizations • Aryans • Hittites

  36. Aryans • Developed Caste System • Lighter skin, higher caste • Aryans blended cultures • Brought in Hinduism • Believed in reincarnation • Karma & dharma • Cows are sacred

  37. Hittites • Centered in Anatolia (modern Turkey, Asia Minor) • Developed iron technology • Developed the chariot which changed warfare dramatically

  38. Other Civilizations to Consider • Fertile Crescent • Phoenicians • Coast of eastern Mediterranean Sea • “Pop-Eyes” of the ancient world • Carriers of civilization • Created alphabet (“Hooked on Phonics”)

  39. Hebrews • Centered in the area of modern Israel/Palestine • Hebrews are first monotheistic people • Torah is holy book (same as Old Testament of Christian Bible) • Abraham starts religion • God is Yahweh • Hebrews are God’s “chosen people” • Hebrews have a covenant with God

  40. Hebrews • Enslaved in Egypt • Led out of Egypt by Moses • Moses presents Hebrews with God’s rules known as 10 Commandments • Settled in modern Israel

  41. Hebrews • Romans show up in Middle East • Jews forced out between 75 & 135 AD • Known as period of Diaspora (dispersal) • Jews spread from Palestine to eastern Europe

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