Purim/Lots • Fourteenth of Adar (February/March). • This feast got its name from the Persian word “pur” (lots). • The book of Esther is read every year at this feast. • It is a time of joy. • Esther 9:18-32
Passover • Fourteenth of Nisan/Abib (March/April). • Oldest Jewish feast • Exodus 11-12; Leviticus 23:4-5 • The purpose was to remember the time God led the children of Israel out of Egyptian bondage. • Packed and ready to leave, the Hebrew people kept the first Passover with bitter herbs, unleavened bread, lamb, and fruit of the vine.
Passover • The Passover was the first of Israel’s three annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem and marked the beginning of the nation’s religious year. • Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper while partaking of the Passover meal. • Matthew 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20
Unleavened Bread • The Feast is observed during the seven days immediately following the Passover. • Because the Feast of Unleavened Bread followed so closely the Passover Feast, it was sometimes simply referred to as the Passover and vice versa. • In keeping with its inception, only unleavened bread was to be eaten. • Leaven was a symbol of impurity, so all the leaven was taken away. • Exodus 12; 23:15; 34:18; Leviticus 23:6-8; Deuteronomy 16:3-8
Pentecost/Weeks • The word Pentecost only appears in the New Testament. • Pentecost was observed on the sixth day of Sivan (May or June). • The feast takes place seven full weeks plus one day after Passover.
Pentecost/Weeks • The feast commemorates the end of the barley harvest and the Lord’s deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage. • All the men of Israel were to present themselves at the tabernacle and wave before the Lord two “leavened” loaves of bread symbolizing the thanksgiving of a people realizing that the Lord had provided a bountiful harvest for them. This was the only “leavened” offering made by Israel to the Lord.
Pentecost/Weeks • Pursuing one’s occupation was prohibited but activities like preparing food were permissible. • Leviticus 23:15-22 • The church was started on the Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem. Acts 2
Trumpets • It occurred on the first day of Tishri and marked the beginning of Israel’s civil year. • Feast was marked by the blast of trumpets. • Pursuing one’s occupation was prohibited. • Leviticus 23:23-25
Atonement/Yom Kippur • Tenth Day of Tishri (September/October). • Only day all year long that the Israelites were required to fast. • Two goats were brought to the temple. One was slaughtered, and one was the scapegoat. • This was the holiest day of the year. • Leviticus 16
Tabernacles/Booths • The feast was celebrated on the fifteenth day of Tishri (October). • This feast occurred five days after the day of Atonement, and it lasted seven days. • This was a feast of thanksgiving to God for the blessings of the year and for God’s protection during the forty years of wandering in the wilderness. • Israel will build and dwell in tabernacles or temporary shelters for a week. • This feast marked the end of the festivals (holy days) for the year. • Leviticus 23:33-44
Dedication/Hanukkah/Lights • This feast was in memory of the rededication of the temple by Judas Maccabeus on the 25th of Kislev (December). • This feast is mentioned in the New Testament in John 10:22. It is described in 1 Maccabees 4:41-61. • It is celebrated by eight days of exchanging gifts. • It is a very happy time but never commanded in Scripture.