uses of the present subjunctive n.
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Uses of the Present Subjunctive

Uses of the Present Subjunctive

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Uses of the Present Subjunctive

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  1. Uses of the Present Subjunctive The present tense of the subjunctive can be used in the following subjunctive clauses: Hortatory Subjunctive* Jussive Subjunctive* Deliberative Subjunctive* (uses imp. also) Potential Subjunctive*(uses imp. & plup. also) Optative Subjunctive* (uses Imp. & plup. also) Purpose Clauses (uses imp. also) Result Clauses (uses imp. also) Indirect Command (uses imp. also) Fearing Clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Indirect Question (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Cum clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Relative Clause of Purpose (uses imp. also) *these are the new subjunctive uses for us!*

  2. Hortatory/Jussive* (the LETTUCE Subjunctive. ) • Used to convey an exhortation (an address or communication emphatically urging someone to do something e.g. “Eat Well!” “Let us all work out!” ) or command. • *Jussive: a grammatical mood of verbs used for issuing orders • TRANSLATIONS: 1stor 3rd person subjects = “LETsubject verb.” • TRANSLATIONS: 2nd person = VERB!!! (as if it were an imperative) e.g. ad urbemambulēmus. LET us walk to the city! e.g. Marcus ā nōbisservētur. LET Marcus be saved by us! e.g. patriamtuamdēfendās! DEFEND your fatherland! e.g. cīvēsbonīsītis. BE good citizens!

  3. Deliberative* Subjunctive • Generally used with the 1st person singular when the speaker is trying to decide what to do next, or when he or she wishes to express doubt or disbelief • Uses PRESENT or IMPERFECT subjunctive tenses • TRANSLATION = PRESENT: “should”; IMPERFECT: “was/were” • e.g. quid faciam? What am I to do? What should I do? • quid facerem? What was I to do • tradantnesē? Arethey to surrender? Should they surrender? • traderentnesē? Were they to surrender? weird! • iamverō quid egōdēvalvīsillīustemplīcommemorem? • But now, what should I relate about the doors of that temple? • **intended for consideration or discussion**

  4. Potential & Optative Subjunctive POTENTIAL: having or showing the capacity to develop into something • Used as the main verb to express a possibility • TRANSLATION: “would” • e.g. credās non dēpuerō scriptum estsed ā puerō. • You would think it was written not about a boy but by a boy. OPTATIVE: expressive of a wish or desire • Used to express wishes • Often used with the word, “ultinam = would that, I wish that” to introduce the verb • Used with “ne” for negative wishes • Present Subjunctive – used for a wish for a thing that IS possible (“may”) • E.g. utinammoxadveniat. May she arrive soon. • E.g. ne discedant. May they not leave. • Imperfect (“might”/”were”) & Pluperfect (“had”) Subjunctive – used for wishes for a thing that are IMPOSSIBLE e.g. utinamVergiliusviveret. Would that Vergil were alive. e.g. utinam ne Hannibal effugisset. Would that Hannibal had not escaped. e.g. Adfuisses! I wish you had been there.