Brown Paper Process Mapping Gemini Skills Workshop July 1998
Outline of Session • Purpose of a Brown Paper • Elements of a Brown Paper • Building a Brown Paper • Appendix • What to include • Practical hints • Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair
PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER The Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for Opportunities The Brown Paper... ...describes the process as it works today from start to end ...may be used to describe the process as it should be ...shows the big picture ...is high touch, low-tech ...identifies strengths and opportunities ...captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues ...quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement ...develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues ...builds project momentum ...is self-explanatory
PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER Why Do We Use Brown Papers? . . . and the Client For Gemini... • The Brown Paper map . . . • . . . describes the process as they use it today and identifying who gets involved, how, and where • . . . identifies strengths and opportunities as they see them • . . . provides the basis for further data gathering / studies • . . . helps to mobilise the client and allows them to focus on the opportunities without blame • The Gemini Team . . . • . . . often has limited time to gather information • . . . understands the “generic process”, but not the process specific to the client • . . . has hypotheses of potential opportunities - based on limited data and past experience, which need to be tested • . . . needs to surface the politicsand emotions involved in the current situation The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and developing broad client ownership
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER What Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like? Title Brown Paper • xxxxxx • xxxxxx • xxxxxx • xxxxxx xxxx xxx xx Red Flags Highlighting Key Opportunities Summary of Strengths Task Strength (Typically Green) Link to Another Process Live Documents Sign-in Sheet Summary of Opportunities Decision Opportunity (TypicallyPink) Clarification (TypicallyYellow) But for every standard there are exceptions — check what’s preferred by the client or the project manager!
ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Use the following symbols for activity, decision and link to another process • Describes activity/task performed • Starts with an action verb • Use few words (less than 5) • e.g. “Receive order”, “Dispatch sales person”, “Give feedback to customer” etc. • Include organisation unit/person who does the task today • Both official and daily life names Task Yesxx% • Describe decision as a yes/no question • e.g. “Fault found in local loop?”, “Found OK?”etc • Write English translation in brackets underneath • Quantify outcome (volume, percentage) “Question” Noxx% “Process Name” • Link to another process flow outside this Brown Paper • Describe required input/output • Comments
ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Use the following symbols for comments and to flag an opportunity • Comment on activity, process flow etc. • Include valuable information, e.g: • man-years used for activity • number of iterations (rework) • dwell times • etc. Comment Flag an Opportunity • Highlights an opportunity to improve • Number flag to reference it “ # ” • Shows that an information system is involved • Include valuable information, e.g: • name of systems • responsible persons • link to other IT support system s • etc. Name of IT system
ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Connect activities with lines and arrows • Standard activity connection with flow direction • Indicates that flow lines cross each other • Indicates telephone or other electronic transmission Draw the lines on the brown paper itself - first with a pencil (draft), then with a thick black pen
ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Placement of Panels on Brown Paper To the far right: summary of findings, strengths and opportunities To the far left: introduction to the BP, who made the BP and sign in sheet.
ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Use different coloured “Post-it” notes for comments Red • To point out an area of improvement • To point out a strength Green • To comment on process flow • e.g. disagreement with the way the process has been mapped Yellow
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER The “Brown Paper process” includes more than the actual mapping of the process flow Plan Do Review Prepare Logistics Build Review Analyse • Hypothesize about todays process • Think about what information you need to validate hypothesis • Invite the “right” people to build the process flow • Logistics • Map the “As Is” process flow • Gather as much information around the process as possible • Invite people to give comments to the Brown Paper • Validate the Brown Paper with staff and management • Arrange Brown Paper Fairs • Analyse for root causes • Try to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER How do I start? Prepare • Be clear about the objective and scope • Hypotheses about the process today • and about benefits, opportunities, data • Create a draft of the process • Decide appropriate level of detail • given the potential opportunities and time constraints Set-Up Logistics • People to make it (owner, credible experts & users, facilitator/helper) • Prepare materials (cut/taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons) • Location (wall space, strong wall-paper) • Time contract Plan
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER How do I create a Brown Paper? Build the Brown Paper • Reiterate objectives and expectations • Clarify scope - start and end points, interfaces • Provide some guidance on level of detail • “Just-do-it” — it’s easy to course correct, but it’s painful to procrastinate • Identify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get them • Capture strengths and opportunities as you progress • Ask the participants at the end what they think the key opportunitiesand concerns are • Allow time for client to air complaints and frustrations Do
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER What do I do next? Review Review • Follow-up next steps • Smarten up the paper as necessary • Capture/review builds from review group(s) • Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknesses Analyse • Design necessary in-depth studies • Identify “Early Wins” • Identify root causes • Look at the process from a customers point of view • Use the BP as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators
Appendix • What to include • Practical hints • Preparing for a Brown Paper Fair
WHAT TO INCLUDE The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process • Person/function carrying out each activity (who does what) • How many people involved • How much time is spent in the process/activity (man years used) • Volumes, Values of flows • Backlogs • Touch times • Time in system • elapsed time, cycle time • Dwell times & reasons • e.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processed • Errors • how often
WHAT TO INCLUDE The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process (cont.) (Cont:) • Rework - Nº of iterations • Checking • when, by whom, how much time, why • Approval points & funding gates • Authority level needed to take decision, sign document etc. • Interface traffic & hand offs • mail, telephone, office system, E-mail etc. • Input/output that are required • Duplication of work at boundaries • Information about the IT systems used in the process
WHAT TO INCLUDE Get as much written information around the process as possible • Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. forms • Obtain copies of all working documents • Get documents/reports describing process • Get information on past and present initiatives that address the process • Project Plan • Names, org. unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiative • Preliminary reports etc. • IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the Brown Paper • indicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for different systems) • have a separate section on the Brown Paper describing the different IT systems
PRACTICAL HINTS Some practical hints • Have complete supply kit • Keep a spare set of icons - you never have enough • Strengthen the edges of the Brown Paper with tape • Use yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity/task before rewriting them on white rectangles • Make sure hand-written text is easy for others to read • Draw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustments • Initially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move around • Don´t glue down any papers until the Brown Paper has been reviewed • Make sure you use glue that will last • Tape “post-its” on with small tape
PRACTICAL HINTS Some process hints • Prepare a rough draft (high level flow) • Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with content experts • Clearly define the start and stop points in the process • Manage the scope • Do not try to depict a lengthy/complex process Flow in a single session • Clear objectives • Get “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates” • When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcome • Focus on what really happens - not what is supposed to happen • Keep participants focused on the “As Is” - not the “To Be” • To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there for the whole session when constructing the Brown Paper
PRACTICAL HINTS Some process hints (cont.) • Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often? • Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain focus) • Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detail • Integrate “presenting back” what is on paper • This helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transfer • Never leave the Brown Paper to be done by people who do not have the proper training • Always ask: who else should see this, or who else is involved in the process?
PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR How Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair • 1. Schedule Time(s) • There will never be a perfect time - be brave and pick one - with interest, people will make time • May need a few events e.g. night shifts; different sites/offices; management &/or others • 2. Plan the Logistics • Client owner / champion - at /near ‘the top’ • Coordinator with time and accountability(client & Gemini involvement needed) • Agenda • Room & layout • Appropriate running order of the papers • Extraordinary needs - popcorn in America, Oompah bands in Europe! • Launch / instructions by a (client) leader • Hand-out for guidance and to collect feedback 3. Communicate Expectations & Promote the Event • Use all available methods of communication (meeting cascade, E-mail, 1-2-1’s) • If necessary create concern / intrigue to ensure participation • Pre-position key clients to be there and be interested • Discuss behavioural norms 4. Prepare the Papers • . . . And prepare the people to ‘man’ them • Too perfect and people won’t want to criticise 5. Do It • Welcome and ‘sign-in’ at entrance • Keep the atmosphere up beat • Role-model listening and post-it issuescapture, and coach people to do it 6. Follow-up • Expect, plan for, and fulfill/manage the expectations that are generated
PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR How do I Present the Brown Paper? • Define the work process flow: • Purpose of the flow • Legend describing brown paper icons • Describe the client involvement: • Participation from people in various functions • Describe the process analyzed: • Identify the process • Describe the beginning and end point of the process • Describe major blocks of activity in the process • Describe activities and decisions • Capture vital details (ratio, # of times, etc.) • Understand decision dynamics • Made alone/group • Importance/frequency • Individuals involved • Describe overall strengths and opportunities: • Key comments and anecdotes made by client participants • Solicit input from the audience • Summarize strengths and opportunities Presentation of the process can be anywhere from five minutes to one hour depending on the objectives of the presentation.