Causes • Treaty of Versailles • Failure of International Pacts • Collapse of the Peace System • French Military Strategy • Destruction of the League of Nations • Policy of Appeasement • Fascist Foreign Policy
Treaty of Versailles • Article 231 • Heavy German Reparations ($32 billion) • Limit of Germany’s military • Hand over colonies and merchant fleet. • Give 1/3 of the coal extracted. • Redrawn boundaries. • Punitive Peace.
Impact of Versailles: The settlement left considerable nationalist dissatisfaction among Germany’s wartime allies in Central Europe and the Balkans. Even among the victorious power, the treaty generated some apprehension. It seemed a precarious peace. When Marshall Foch of France read the treaty, he exclaimed, “This isn’t a peace, it’s a twenty year truce!”
International Pacts: • 1922 The Washington Conference. • Disarmament movement. • Limit the sizes of the navies by tonnage. • 1925 The Locarno Pact • Germany accepted post-war borders. • Germany signed treaties with France, Belgium, Poland, and Czech • 1928 The Kellogg-Briand Pact: • Renounce the use of warfare as policy.
Collapse of the Peace System(1929 - 1939) • Allied Unwillingness • Nations economically depressed. • Government policy and public support unwilling to keep Germany in check.
French Military Strategy: • Lessons of World War I • Linear Defense • Developed a defensive mentality. • Constructed the Maginot Line • Weapons development promotes the development of mobile weapons.
The Destruction of the League of Nations: • 1931 Japan invades Manchuria • 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia • 1938 Anschluss (Austria) • 1938 Germany claims the Sudentenland • Hitler’s foreign policy.
Policy of Appeasement • Munich Conference • German demands for a Greater German Nation • Britain and France concede to Hitler’s demands. • Sudentenlands of Czechoslovakia were given to Germany. • 6 months later, Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia
Fascist Foreign Policy: • Destroy Versailles • Rearm Germany. • Lebensraum. • True Intentions were war and territorial expansion.
Russo-German Non-aggression Pact • Treaty signed by the German and Soviet governments • Design had both nations split Poland. • Ensured Hitler of a controlled war.
World War IIThe Axis Phase: • 1939 Germany Invades Poland.
Fall of France: • France Falls in Five Weeks. • England remains.
The Battle of Britain: • Operation Sea Lion • Secure the Sea lanes of the English Channel • Destroy the RAF • First Air Battle
The Turning Point (1942): • The Battle of Stalingrad • The Battle of Tobruk • The Battle of Midway (Pacific)
Normandy: • U.S and U.K. open up a second front. • Fortress Europa breached.