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Birds and Mammals

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  1. Birds and Mammals Ms. Youngblood

  2. Birds • All birds have feathers • Have the ability to fly • Class: Aves • Latin word for bird aves • Almost 9,000 species of birds on Earth today

  3. Bird Characteristics • Vertebrates • Legs and feet are covered by thick, dry scales like those of reptiles. • Even the skin around their beak is scaly • Amniotic Eggs • Usually harder than those of reptiles • Beaks instead of jaws or teeth, feathers, wings and adaptations for flight.

  4. Feathers • Birds have two types of feathers • Down feathers • Contour feathers • Birds take good care of their feathers through a process called preening.

  5. Energy • Birds need a lot of Energy. • They have a high metabolism, which generates A LOT of heat • Birds cannot sweat • Birds eat a lot of food because of their metabolism • High-protein, high-fat diet of insects, nuts, seeds, or meat… few eat leaves of plants

  6. Flying • Most birds fly • Air Sacs • attached to lungs to increase the amount of oxygen they can take in • Large eyes • Heart • beats extremely fast • Wings

  7. Flying cont’d • Rigid Skeleton • Some bones are fused together • Lighter Skeletons • Bones are hollow • Flight muscles • Attached to a large breast bone called a keel • Lift is the upward motion that keeps birds in the air

  8. Birds • Birds reproduce through internal fertilization • Unlike reptiles they keep their eggs warm for their embryo to develop • Brooding • Chicks that hatch fully active are precocial • Chicks that are essentially helpless (weak, naked, and helpless) are called altrical

  9. Kinds of Birds • Flightless Birds • Ostriches, emus, kiwis

  10. Kinds of Birds • Water Birds (waterfowl) • Cranes, ducks, geese, swans, pelicans, and loons

  11. Types of Birds • Birds of Prey • Eagles, hawks, falcons, and owls

  12. Types of Birds • Perching Birds • Songbirds like robins, wrens, warblers, and sparrows

  13. Mammals • Small class of animals • Found all over the world, in every climate • Therapsids

  14. Characteristics of Mammals • All have mammary glands • secrete milk for young • Endotherms • Adaptations help them keep warm • Hair • Teeth that are specialized • Use lungs and a diaphragm to bring air into the lungs

  15. Characteristics of Mammals • Large brains • Helps them learn, move and think quickly • Reproduce Sexually through internal fertilization • Live birth, and nurse their young

  16. Kinds of Mammals • 3 groups based on the way their young develop • Monotremes • Lay eggs • Only three species alive today (two kinds of echidnas and duckbilled platypus)

  17. Kinds of Mammals • Marsupials • Pouches • Opossum, koalas, Tasmanian devils, and wallabies

  18. Kinds of Mammals • Placental Mammals • Embryos develop inside a uterus • Placenta attaches to mother and provides food and oxygen from the mothers blood. • Gestation period

  19. Kinds of Placental Mammals • Toothless Mammals • Feed on insects • Only anteaters are completely toothless

  20. Kinds of Placental Mammals • Insect eaters • Do not live on Australia or Antarctica

  21. Types of Placental Mammals • Rodents • 1/3 of all mammals • Found everywhere except Antarctica • Sharp front teeth that grow continuously

  22. Types of Placental Mammals • Lagomorphs • 2 sets of incisors • Short tails • Sensitive noses and large ears

  23. Types of Placental Mammals • Flying Mammals • Bats • 3 species of Vampire bats

  24. Types of Placental Animals • Carnivores • Large canines • Pinnipeds (fish eating marine animals)

  25. Types of Placental Mammals • Hoofed- mammals • Adapted for swift running • Plant eaters • Divided based on number of toes – odd and even

  26. Types of Placental Mammals • Trunk-Nosed Mammals • Only Elephants • Eat up to 18 hours a day

  27. Types of Placental Mammals • Cetaceans • Whales, dolphins and porpoises • Water-dwelling

  28. Types of Placental Mammals • Sirenia • 3 types of manatees and the dugong

  29. Types of Placental Mammals • Primates • About 160 species • Eyes face forward • Flat fingernails, and five fingers and toes • Opposable thumbs • Large brain in proportion to their body