How orderly was the process of decolonisation in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia and Zimbabwe? C aim – to explain how to assess the orderliness of the process of decolonisation and how orderly it was in East and West AfricaB/A aim – to explain how orderly the process of decolonisation was in Africa How would you define the process of decolonisation? What would you expect to happen in an orderly example of the process of decolonisation? What would you expect to happen in a disorderly example of the process of decolonisation? Using your homework, how orderly was the process of decolonisation in these examples?
How orderly was the decolonisation process and its aftermath? • Orderly decolonisation process – Ghana, Nigeria (West Africa) • Disorderly decolonisation process – Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia, Zimbabwe • Disorderly aftermath to varying extents – Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia, Zimbabwe
Very disorderly process of decolonisation Very orderly process of decolonisation
How orderly was the process of decolonisation in Ghana, Gambia, Kenya, Somalia and Zimbabwe? C aim – to explain how to assess the orderliness of the process of decolonisation and how orderly it was in East and West AfricaB/A aim – to explain how orderly the process of decolonisation was in Africa • C – How do we assess how orderly the process of decolonisation is? Was it more orderly in East or West Africa? • B+ - How orderly was the process of decolonisation in Africa? Include how we assess this, if there is any difference between East and West, and if there is any difference if white settlers are present.
Homework – Due Thursday • Add detail to your table. • Write a paragraph explaining how orderly the process of decolonisation was in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia and Zimbabwe. • Prepare notes and be ready to argue the following • The aftermath of decolonisation was extremely disorderly – Dwight, Timur, Devante, Legjende • The aftermath of decolonisation was very orderly – particularly considering the circumstances – Roua, Dina, Guled, Hamid
Ghana In Ghana there was history of anti-colonial feeling, peaceful protests, Britain conceding limited legislative power which meant that allowing Ghana to become independent became increasingly difficult to refuse, and Ghana had a most popular party and leader who had united most of the different ethnic groups (particularly including the Asante). Nkrumah was imprisoned. • 1902 – Ghana is officially completely colonised by Britain • 1920Gold Coast Youth Conference formed by students in the south of the territory • 1925First legislative elections take place • 1935Ashanti Confederacy Council founded to give the Asante limited autonomy • 1946With the end of World war II, there is an increased call for African Independence. The Gold Coast legislature gets a black majority, but the colony's administration is still under British control. • November 1947Kofi Kwame Nkrumah returns to the Gold Coast after studying in Britain. • 1947The United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) founded by Kofi Kwame Nkrumah, Dr Joseph B Danquah and E Akuffo-Addo, call for self-government within the British colonial system. Kofi Kwame Nkrumah is elected as the party's General-Secretary. • 28 February 1948Kofi Kwame Nkrumah leads a boycott of British and Asian owned businesses. Police open fire at an anti-colonial demonstration in Accra. During the ensuing riot 29 are killed and several hundred injured. Nkrumah confesses to instigating the demonstration and is briefly imprisoned. • 1949Kofi Kwame Nkrumah leaves the UGCC and forms the Convention People's Party (CPP). Membership is drawn from across the whole colony, including the north. The CPP becomes the main party advocating for independence. • 1950Kofi Kwame Nkrumah calls for a national strike and is arrested. A constitution is granted which gives indigenous people positions in the colony's government for the first time. • 1951Kofi Kwame Nkrumah released from prison when the CPP wins its first elections for the legislature. The British authorities allow Nkrumah to form a government. • March 1952CPP wins significant electoral victory, Kofi Kwame Nkrumah becomes Prime Minister of a 'self-governing' Crown Colony with an intention of eventual independence. Britain still retains administration. • 1954Kofi Kwame Nkrumah, for the Convention People's Party (CPP), is re-elected as Prime Minister. The CPP overwhelms the 'opposition' National Liberation Movement, which is centered amongst the Asante cocoa farmers in the north. Now that there appears to be one most popular political party elected through fair elections Britain decides to accelerate the decolonisation process • .July 1956Kofi Kwame Nkrumah is elected as Prime Minister for a third time, further confirming that the CPP is the most popular party and Nkrumah is the most popular leader. Final plans made for the transfer of power. • 6 March 1957Former British African colony of the Gold Coast and Togoland gains independence within the British Commonwealth as Ghana, Nkrumah continues as prime minister. Charles Arden-Clarke is Governor-General representing the British Queen as head of state. Ghana is the first sub-Saharan country to gain independence and is an inspiration to the whole continent. The independence ceremony is attended by Martin Luther King and the US Vice President Richard Milhous Nixon.
Nigeria The British responded to Nigerian peaceful demands for independence and allowed it to occur in a federalised form. Britain didn’t imprison any of the Nigerian leaders. The process of colonisation was planned and prepared for. However, the federalised system showed that there would be difficulties in the years to come. There was no most popular party or most popular leader due to differences between the regions. • 1914 – colonisation of Nigeria by Britain is completed • After WWII Nigerian nationalist demanded more and more independence. Britain passed successive constitutions for the country which moved Nigeria towards self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. • 1923 – Nigeria Council established, later became called the Legislative council. They said a federal Nigeria would be the only one that would work. • 1951 – Legislative Council ended • 1952 – Nigerians appointed Ministers. Nigerian politicians formulated government policy. • May 1953 - Riots calling for independence result in the death of 32 Nigerians. • 1 October 1954 – the most federalised constitution came in effect. • 30 July 1957two regions in Nigeria granted autonomy by Britain. The Northern Muslims and Southern Christians were determined to keep regional and national influence. A National government was also created so that the North and South could plan policy and plan for independence in 1960. The different regions work together well. • 1 October 1960 Nigeria gains independence from Britain as a federated state. Benjamin NnamdiAzikiwe, for the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), is governor-general representing the British Queen. The Northern leader Balewa became PM.
Kenya Britain realised that Kenya would also need to become independent. They began to plan for it by conceding some political power in 1944 as the first Africa was appointed to the legislative council. However, then Britain’s policy making was driven by their fear and lack of control over the Mau Mau Rebellion. Once it had ended in 1956 Britain conceded more political power as a direct result of it to stop it happening again as the colonial legislative had its first elected African members- this wasn’t in response to mostly peaceful protests as in Ghana and Nigeria. In 1959 Britain publicly announced Kenya would get African rule. Elections were held and offices developed until KANU won. This was then more disorderly as KANU refused to govern until Kenyatta was released. He was later released and became president. Kenyatta orchestrated and organised the transition to independence and this occurred peacefully in 1963. • 1901 to 1906Kikuyu, Embu and Guissi resist colonial rule • 1920 Inland Kenya formally becomes a British Crown Colony, under the rule of a British governor, the coast is a protectorate, with nominal rule form the Sultan of Zanzibar. Kikuyu Central Association formed with the aim of furthering Kikuyu interests in the Crown Colony. • 1944Formation of the Kenyan African Union, KAU, predominantly Kikuyu in membership. First African appointed to the legislative council. • 1947 Jomo Kenyatta becomes leader of the KAU. • 1952 Mau Mau Rebellionstarts and state of Emergency declared. Kenyatta arrested. • 1953KAU banned.(5 April) Kenyatta jailed (until 1961), convicted of being a leader of the Mau Mau. • 1956 Mau Mau Rebellion is mostly suppressed by the British. • 1957 The colonial legislature has its first elected African members. • 1959 Kenyatta released to house arrest.(10 November) State of Emergency is lifted following suppression of the Mau Mau Rebellion. Britain announces plan to give Kenya majority African rule. • 1961Kenya Africa National Union, KANU, formed by Tom Mboya and OgingaOdinga. KANU, wins election to new parliament, but whilst Kenyatta is still in jail it refuses to take up the role. The Kenya African Democratic Union, KANU, takes power instead.(21 August) Kenyatta released, takes up presidency of KANU. • 1963(12 December) Independence, Kenyatta as prime minister.
Somalia Somalia’s process of decolonisation was complex and not always orderly. Italian Somaliland made the most progress towards independence initially, and then Britain realised they needed to concede political power to economically develop Somalia. When this power was conceded it was then difficult to limit it. Parts of Somalia were given to Ethiopia and Kenya to try to appease various forces in the region and unify ethnic groups – which further complicated the process of decolonisation. Britain responded to largely peaceful nationalist pressures – making it more orderly. The actual granting of independence, election of the first PM and President and passing of the Constitution was very peaceful and democratic. • 1935 – first organised Somali nationalist group formed in British Somalia – the Somali National League • 1945 – Britain controlled Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland as Italy had been defeated during WWII. Italian Somaliland was then given back to Italy under UN supervision as long as it worked towards independence by building internal political structures and gained it within 10 years. • 1948 – Britain gave some of British Somaliland to Ethiopia to honour a treaty from 1897 when Ethiopia had helped the British defeat some Somali clans. Britain said Somalis would keep autonomy, but Ethiopia made sure this didn’t happen. • 1950s – Britain put more money into British Somaliland to try to develop it as a useful colony. However, it was economically stagnating behind Italian Somaliland which had political autonomy, which proved to Britain that more political autonomy was needed. • 1956 – Britain tries to buy back the part of British Somaliland from Ethiopia but fails. Italian Somaliland renamed Somalia and granted internal autonomy. • 1960 - British and Italian parts of Somalia become independent, merge and form the United Republic of Somalia in response to demands from Somali nationalists. Agreed on a regional and national government. The public voted to accept a new constitution. Britain granted administration of some of Northern Britsih Somaliland to Kenya despite an informal vote showing that most of the population wanted to join the newly formed Somali Republic.
The process of decolonisation in Zimbabwe was very disorderly as it encountered the creation and dissolution of a federation, the illegal declartion of independence, a 16 year long Civil War, 3 nationalist groups, disunity and the refusal to accept Bishop Muzorewa. However, an agreement was reached at Lancaster House and if it hadn’t been for the resistance of the National Front it may have been a lot more orderly. • 10 March 1952 African National Congress (ANC) founded by Joshua Nkomo, the colony's first black nationalist political party. • 1953 Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), and Nyasaland (now Malawi) are joined as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (otherwise known as the Central African Federation • 1961 Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) founded by Joshua Nkomo. • 1962 ZAPU banned as the segregationist White Settler Rhodesian Front (RF) wins white-only elections and takes control of the legislature • 1963 Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Central African Federation) is dissolved after campaigns by Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland nationalists. Northern Rhodesia gains independence as Zambia, Nyasaland gains independence as Malawi. • National Democratic Party splits with some joining Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union and others forming the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) under the Reverend NdabaningiSithole and Robert Mugabe. • 13 April 1964Ian Douglas Smith becomes prime minister for the Rhodesian Front (RF). He begins negotiations with Britain over independence (as a white settler state). • 1964Britain demands majority rule for (Southern) Rhodesia.Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo jailed by Ian Smith's government after rivalry between competing black nationalist groups turns violent. • 11 November 1965With the re-election of the Rhodesian Front (RF), Prime Minister Ian Smith announces UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence) from the UK. Amid international outrage, the British government imposes economic sanctions. • The Reverend NdabaningiSithole and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), begin guerrilla war against white Rhodesians. • 20 November 1965UN Security Council calls for a boycott of Rhodesia. • 28 December 1965US bans sale of oil to Rhodesia. • 1966Battle of Chinhoyi is first major battle of the guerrilla war. • 29 May 1968UN Resolution 253, Question Concerning the Situation in Southern Rhodesia, requires member states to withdraw consular and trade representation with the country, to stop emigration to Southern Rhodesia, and stop illegal trading with the country. It also urged member states to provide moral and material assistance to disenfranchised majority in Southern Rhodesia to achieve their freedom and independence. It further required Great Britain, as the administering power, to act against Ian Smith's government in order to further the independence of Southern Rhodesia's majority, and to bring an end to what it called a 'rebellion' by using 'all possible measures'. • 1 March 1970Ian Smith's government declares full independence from Britain and declares a republic. • .1971Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa forms the African National Council (ANC) with the aim of opening negotiations with Ian Smith's government. • 1972Rivalry intensifies between the two nationalist, guerrilla movements: The Reverend NdabaningiSithole and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU). They are attacking targets in Rhodesia from their bases in Mozambique and Malawi. • 1974Under increasing pressure from guerrilla attacks, Ian Smith agrees to the release of political prisoners in advance of peace talks. The peace talks, however, fail. • 3 March 1976Mozambique closes its border with Rhodesia. • 1976Robert Mugabe has engineered himself into the leadership of ZANU. Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and Zimbabwe African People's Union-Patriotic Front (ZAPU-PF) unite to form the Patriotic Front (PF). They receive backing from frontline states in southern Africa: Mozambique, Tanzania, Botswana, and Zambia.JoshuaNkomo is in exile in Zambia, Robert Mugabe escapes to Mozambique. • 31 August 1977Ian Smith, with a policy of racial segregation, wins the general election with more than 80% of the vote. • 3 March 1978After negotiations forced on Prime Minister Ian Smith by international pressure, an agreement is signed between Ian Smith's government and Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa's African National Council (ANC) to end hostilities and prepare for black majority rule. A constitution is to be drawn up by a delegation. • .10 April 1979First multi-racial democratic elections held in Rhodesia -- Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa's United African National Congress wins 51 seats. • 31 May 1979Zimbabwe declared independent under new constitution. The new state fails to achieve international recognition. The civil war continues. Republic reverts to a British colony on 11 December 1979. • December 1979 Four years of negotiations at Lancaster House, London, have resulted in an agreement for a new constitution in Rhodesia leading to majority rule for the country's black population. As a ceasefire is brought into effect, Britain resumes its role as colonial master. • .21 December 1979 Lancaster House Agreement is signed between representatives of the British government, Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe for the Patriotic Front (the amalgamation of Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU)), and representatives of the Zimbabwe / Rhodesia government headed by Ian Smith and Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa. • February 1980 Mugabe becomes prime minister following a violent election campaign supposedly supervised by Britain. • 18 April 1980Rhodesia now independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe.