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Ch. 17

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Ch. 17

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  1. Ch. 17 Freedom’s Boundaries, 1890-1900

  2. The Populist Challenge • Farmer’s Alliance-Formed in Texas, late 1870s, in 43 states by 1890 • Loaned money to farmers • Sell produce • Wanted govt loans for farmers • Evolved into People’s Party (Populists), a political party • Some forged an alliance with black farmers • In 1894 white Populists and black Republicans won control of North Carolina • Other states used violence/stuffed ballot boxes to keep Populists out of govt • In 1892, Populist Presidential Party carried 5 states, Cleveland won the election (Democrat)

  3. The Money Question • Presidential Campaign of 1896 • First modern presidential campaign, p. 687 • McKinley election committee spent $10 million • William Jennings Bryan-$300,000 • Populists joined Democrats to support Bryan • Hard vs. Soft Money Debate • Bryan demanded “free silver”, which would increase prices and the money supply and decrease the value of debts • He favored helping “ordinary” Americans • Progressive income tax • Banking regulation • Right to form unions • “Evolution” of democratic party-They now supported farmers and laborers more than businessmen like they did under President Cleveland (remember prior to this Populists aligned themselves with Republicans) • McKinley won the election, but not by a landslide

  4. The Segregated South • In 1900, southern per capita income was only 60% of the national average • Why was the South poor? • Sharecropping • Convict Labor • Low wages/ low taxes • States cut spending on hospitals, education for both races

  5. Blacks and Voting • Black voting/office holding did not end in 1877 • Gradual process of restricted voting • Between 1890 and 1906 every southern state enacted laws meant to eliminate the black vote • Poll tax • Literacy Tests • Grandfather Clause (invalidated by Supreme Court in 1915) • White leaders presented disenfranchisement as a “good government” measure to end fraud, violence and manipulation of voting. • Poor whites as well as blacks lost the right to vote.

  6. Louisiana • 80,000 whites also lost their right to vote

  7. The Law of Segregation • 1883- Civil Rights Cases- the Supreme court invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which had outlawed racial discrimination by public facilities • 1896-Plessy vs. Ferguson-Court gave its approval to states laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites • After 1896 segregation laws were passed in all states (including northern and western states) • Laws affected Native Americans, Hispanics and Chinese as well as African Americans

  8. Lynching: States with over 200 Lynchings, 1889-1918

  9. Redrawing the Boundaries • The effective nullification of the laws and amendments of Reconstruction and the reduction of blacks to the position of second class citizens reflected nationwide patterns of thought and policy p. 697 • “Restricted” definition of nationhood • “Modern” white man of Anglo-Saxon heritage (Western Europe), lesser groups were primitive: Chinese, Hispanic, black, immigrants from Southern/Eastern Europe, Irish • Immigration Restriction League, founded 1894, supported barring the illiterate from the U.S. (Law was vetoed by Pres. Cleveland) • 1875-Prostitutes barred from entry • 1882-mentally ill and disabled barred (called lunatics and those most likely to become a public charge.)

  10. Asian Immigration • 1875-Chinese women barred from entering U.S. • 1882-Chinese Exclusion Act (became a permanent law in 1902) • California had segregated schools for Chinese children • All Asian immigration (except Filipino) was not barred until 1917

  11. Booker T. Washington • Atlanta Speech, 1895 • Argued that blacks should accept segregation and find employment in agriculture and as servants • Founded the Tuskegee Institute, a vocational school for African Americans • Early twentieth century African American rights activists like Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. DuBois criticized Washington for going along with racism instead of fighting for equal rights

  12. The Women’s Era • 1874, Women’s Christian Temperance Union founded • Supported ban of alcohol • Economic/political reforms • Right to vote • Laws were passed in late 19th century that gave married women control over their own wages, property and the right to sign separate contracts and wills • National American Woman Suffrage Association, founded 1890 • “Extending the right to vote to native born women would help to counteract the growing power of the “ignorant foreign vote” in the North and .. A second Reconstruction in the South.” –Carrie Chapman Catt, president

  13. Becoming a World Power • 1875-1900 Age of Imperialism: European powers carved up the rest of the world • “Sun never set on the British Empire” • Invention of Quinine to treat malaria enabled European powers to take over Africa’s interior • Shift of power: South and Central America gain their independence from Spain and Portugal, Great Britain colonizes parts of Africa, India, the Middle East and Australia, • Japan, France, Netherlands (Dutch) and Germany also have colonies throughout Asia and Africa and island nations • U.S. expands and gains overseas possessions

  14. Year of Independence of Countries in Latin America

  15. British World 1900

  16. European Rule of Africa, 1914

  17. Japanese Expansion

  18. Japan • Japan was heavily influenced by Western Culture (European and United States) • Became a world power by the early 20th century • Adopted industrialization, Western dress, Western style of government including a constitution • Gentleman’s Agreement of 1908-Japanese immigration banned in exchange for segregation to end in California’s schools for Japanese children (U.S. had a good relationship with Japan until after WWI) • Japanese immigrated in large numbers to Hawaii and California, late 20th century • Often treated as second class citizens like the Chinese

  19. U.S. Expansion

  20. Hawaii • 1893-American planters overthrow Hawaiian kingdom • 1898-U.S. annexes Hawaii and it becomes a territory • Traditional territory vs. insular territory (colony or possession) • Hawaii could achieve statehood • Insular territories (like the Midway Islands) could not become states and participate in American democracy • See map p. 711-U.S. annexes Pacific Islands

  21. U.S. Imperialism • Monroe Doctrine-1823-Warned European powers not to interfere with Western Hemisphere • Spanish American War-1898-U.S. entered war for Cuban Independence after the Spanish accidentally sunk the American ship Maine • U.S. gained the Philippines (Filipinos), Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain (they became insular territories with no say in U.S. government) • Platt Amendment-1903-U.S. could interfere militarily with Cuba whenever it saw fit • Cuba achieved independence but was under “U.S. sphere of influence” • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine, 1905-U.S. could interfere with Latin America, but Europe could not • See p. 771 (Ch. 19) for a map detailing U.S. intervention in Latin America from 1905 onward

  22. Interference with China and Philippines • Open door policy, 1899-European powers forced China to trade with them after the Opium Wars, U.S. wanted their trade as well • U.S. sent troops to suppress Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900 (Chinese killed Christians and stormed foreign embassies) • 1899-1903-U.S./Filipino war • 100,000 Filipinos died, 4,200 Americans • Filipinos failed to gain independence • Howard Taft became Governor General of the Philippines in 1901 (later became president of U.S.)

  23. Criticism of U.S. Imperialism • Democrats opposed to the Philippine War • Anti-Imperialists believed the war was “un-American” • McKinley won the election again in 1900 on a platform of “benevolent imperialism abroad and prosperity at home”

  24. Ch. 15 to 18 • Know key terms, timelines and review tables • Presidents, 1865-1916: 17. Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 18. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant 1869-1877 19. Rutherford B. Hayes 1877-1881 20. James A. Garfield 1881-(Died in Office) 21. Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 22.Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 23.Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 24.Grover Cleveland 1893-1897 25. William McKinley 1897-1901 26. Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 27.William Howard Taft 1909-1913 28.Woodraw Wilson 1913-1921