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Basic punctuation Logical Fallacies PowerPoint Presentation
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Basic punctuation Logical Fallacies

Basic punctuation Logical Fallacies

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Basic punctuation Logical Fallacies

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  1. Basic punctuation • Logical Fallacies

  2. Basic Punctuation See handout

  3. Logical Fallacies

  4. Fallacies • 1. Oversimplification • 2. Hasty generalization • 3. Post hoc, ergo proper hoc: • 4. Begging the question • 5. False analogy: • 6. Either/or thinking: • 7. Non sequitur:

  5. (1) Oversimplification: • A drastically simple solution to what is clearly a complex problem (multiple causes are reduced to just one or a few) For example: We have a balance-of-trade deficit because foreigners make better products than we do. Another example: School violence has gone up and academic performance has gone down every since organized prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement.

  6. It’s an oversimplification because • The above example assumes that problems in schools (increasing violence, decreasing academic performance) can be attributed to a single cause (the loss of organized, state-mandated prayers).

  7. (2) Hasty generalization: • In inductive reasoning, a generalization that is based on too little evidence or on evidence that is not representative (Basically, don’t be too quick to judge) For example: My grandparents eat oat meal for breakfast, just as most older folks do.

  8. (3) Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: • “ After this, therefore because of this.” Confusing chance or coincidence with causation. The fact that one event comes after another does not necessarily mean that the first event cause the second: For example: I went to the hockey game last night. The next thing I knew I had a cold.

  9. (4) Begging the question Begging the questions is a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assume that the conclusion is true. For example: Lying is wrong because people should always tell the truth.

  10. (5) False analogy: • Making a misleading analogy between logically unconnected ideas For example: If we can clone mammals, we should be able to find a cure for cancer. For example: Government is like business, so just as business must be sensitive primarily to the bottom line, so also must government. (But the objectives of government and business are completely different, so probably they will have to meet different criteria)

  11. (6) Either or/thinking • Seeing only two alternatives when there may in fact be other possibilities For example: Either you love your job, or you hate it.

  12. (7) Non sequitur: • “It does not follow.” An inference or conclusion that is not clearly related to the established premises or evidence: For example: She is very sincere. She must know what she’s talking about.

  13. Check your papers • Do you have any logical fallacies?

  14. I will continue to check your paragraphs • (You should have three to show me) • Goal: Two more paragraphs.