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THE AMERICAN OLD WEST. Mid-1800s in the Rocky Mountains. THE WILDERNESS ROAD In 1775, Daniel Boone blazed a trail from Virginia through the into central Kentucky. During the nest 140 years, it was lengthened, following Native American trails, to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville.
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THE AMERICAN OLD WEST Mid-1800s in the Rocky Mountains
THE WILDERNESS ROAD In 1775, Daniel Boone blazed a trail from Virginia through the into central Kentucky. During the nest 140 years, it was lengthened, following Native American trails, to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville. The Wilderness Road was steep and rough, and it could only be traveled to on foot or horseback. Despite the difficult conditions, 350,000 pioneers used it in search for a better life.
VOCABULARY • PRARIE A wide area of flat land without trees in northern USA
VOCABULARY • SKIMPY Not large enough • BOOST UP To improve or increase something • CONESTOGA WAGON a large covered wagon used for long-distance travel, typically carrying pioneers in the westward migration. Origin: early 18th century: named after Conestoga, a town in Pennsylvania
VOCABULARY • CREAKED & RUMBLED Make a long sound when it moves & to make continuous low sound • WESTWARD Toward west • SAWMILL A factory where trees are cut up into pieces with machines • SCOWL To look at someone with a very annoyed expression
COMPREHENSION • 1. What inferences (logical guesses) can you make about the narrator’s family? The narrator is travelling with his father and two little sisters. Because the mother is not mentioned, perhaps she has died. The family is poor. 2. What reasons does Pa give for not wanting Mary to join them? They’re out of money and almost out of food. He doesn’t want to be responsible for another person.
VOCABULARY • Timber Wood used for building • Stumps • Rotted To decay • Spoiled destroy • Desperate Suffering from extreme need • He ranged through the woods with his rifle. But we never got any dead meat. game Wild animals that are hunted for food • Grudging gift from the homesteaders unwilling
VOCABULARY • Rigged up the tarp sheet To fix a piece of equipment in place • Tarp= heavy waterproof cloth used for covering • Creek for fishing A stream or narrow river • Pardner Used as a informal form of address, usually between men • Plodded off To walk taking slow step
COMPREHENSION • Why do you think the narrator says “To this day I don’t care for fishing”? He doesn’t like to fish because he still remembers how hard his father tried to catch a fish and how sad and discouraged his father was when he couldn’t. • How do Pa’s words tell about him? He feels resentful and defeated and has almost given up.
THINK IT THROUGH • What is the family’s worst problem? What is Pa’s plan to solve it? They are running out of food; Pa plans to find his uncle in town & get some food.
VOCABULARY • Moldy Bad • Racket Unpleasant loud continuous noise • Pitch-dark (line 95) Extremely dark • Whip • I got plumb lost (line 100) Completely lost
VOCABULARY • Clearing An area in a wood or forest from which trees and bushes have been removed • Grub Food • Huddled Standing or sitting close together • Dried out Being independent
VOCABULARY • Never saw hide nor hair (line 116) Not to see someone at all at a period of time • Damp Slightly wet • Heft Weigh • Pound = 454 grams
COMPREHENSION • Why is the loss of the horse so important? The horse is useful and worth a lot of money. The family could not easily replace it. If things go badly, the horse may also keep the family from starving to death. To the narrator, the horse stands for the trust his father placed in him.
COMPREHENSION • Do you agree with the narrator that 11 years old is too old to cry? Why or why not?
THINK IT THROUGH • The family’s situation has changed. How has it gotten worse? The family has run out of food, and Pa has not returned.
VOCABULARY 4 • I growled. (line 150) • She was holding the can with the porcupine grease. (line 153) • I endured the smell of the mushroom frying as long as I could. put up with • I was so scared that my stomach heaved. (line 182) • Savoring life Enjoying & appreciating fully
THINK IT THROUGH • What do Mary’s actions show about her? She is brave, self-sacrificing, responsible, caring.
VOCABULARY 5 • I answered gruffly, “I don’t know.” (line 207) • Not saying too much Looking out at the dripping world (line 209) Wet weather My father came plunging out of the woods • Walking sedately In slow, dignified way
THINK IT THROUGH • What does the last line of the story tell you? • Pa & Mary eventually get married. • What can you infer, or figure out, about Mary’s character? What clues tell you this? • She is strong, brave, & independence person who stands up for herself & cares about others. • In what ways does Mary show the toughness necessary for pioneer life? • She has survived whippings, can cook, and is physically strong enough for hard life; she faces death to feed the children.
LITERATURE: CHARACTERS • A story usually focuses on events in the life of one or more characters. • Dynamic, change, • Grow in some way • Less important characters • Interact with the main characters • Static, they change little People, animals, imaginary creatures that take part in the action of a story.
KUNGFU PANDA • Write the name of a story • Identify the characters • Classify as main or minor • Dynamic or static • Describe each character: appearance & personality • Give reasons for their answers
THINK IT THROUGH • Who are the main characters? • Mary & the narrator • What do you learn about Mary? • Mary is strong, brave, determined, and hard working. She has not had an easy life.