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The American West. Westward Expansion and Conflict. Government Policy on Natives. 1850 and After. Followed President Jackson idea of forcibly removing natives from their land in East and relocate them in the West. Government seizure of native lands and move them to reservations.
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The American West Westward Expansion and Conflict
Government Policy on Natives 1850 and After Followed President Jackson idea of forcibly removing natives from their land in East and relocate them in the West Government seizure of native lands and move them to reservations Before 1850
Goal of 1850s Policy Break up the power of Plains Indians and open up their land for settlement for white settlers from the East
Indian Wars • Sand Creek Massacre (1864) • Natives raiding farms of settlers and U.S. Army persuaded them to return to Colorado. Natives agree peacefully, but U.S. Army attacks and kills 150 without anyone being punished • Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) • Again natives attacking settlers and government ordered them to leave, but instead Sitting Bull led the natives to resist and were attacked in camp by George Custer where the natives slaughtered the much small force – GREATEST SIOUX/NATIVE VICTORY • Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) • Caputred Sioux Indians were forced to give up guns on capture (including Sitting Bull) and fighting broke out. U.S. Army had machine guns which they used to slaughter nearly 300 men, women, and children
End of Fighting • Chief Joseph – Leader of Nez Perce’ tribes who had his people lay down arms to survive. • Geronimo – Apache leader who fled reservation and raided settler lands in Arizona until he was captured in 1886.
The Reservation Life • Purpose: • Wanted to Americanize the Natives forcing them to give up traditional ways and live like the whites • Bureau of Indian Affairs: • Federal agency set up to manage the reservations’ and set up schools far from home to teach them English and to dress like whites • Dawes Act 1887: • Broke up reservations allowing individuals to own land privately, but best land was sold to white settlers and bad land was sold to Natives
Review Questions • Who was Geronimo and Chief Joseph? What role did they play in the end of the wars in the west? • What was the Dawes’ Act? Do you think it was fair? Why or why not? • What happened at the Battle of Little Bighorn and the Battle of Wounded Knee? • How did American Policy change toward the natives in the 1850s? • What was the purpose of reservation life being established? • What role did the Bureau of Indian Affairs play? Do you think that they provided a good service to natives or do you think they damaged them even more? Why?