Tonight (2/1/2011) • Weather Review • Turbulent Atmosphere (Chapter 1) • Weather Observations • Geography 101 (in class – HW#2) • Next Week • Heat & Energy (chapter 2) • Weather Maps Week 2 Class Notes
1. No iLearn. Everything will be on the class website.http://funnel.sfsu.edu/courses/jnull/metr302/s11/ • re: Homework # 1. • Deadline extended until 6 PM Wednesday, Feb. 2 • If you are wait-listed get a Permit # • Textbook?? Week 2 Class Notes
How I Wish it Would Rain Let it Snow You Are My Sun Shine Its Raining Men Tears and Rain Rain Stained Melodies Ain't No Sunshine No Rain Rain Down On Me Wheel in the Sky Frosty the Snow Man And it Rained All Night Rain A Hard Rains a Gonna Fall Blueberry Rain Pennies From Heaven I Can’t Stand the Rain Crooked Teeth Make it Rain Riders on the storm Let the rain fall down Rainy Days It's Raining Men Fire and Rain Texas Flood Let it Rain The Wind Cries Mary Sunday Morning Riders On the Storm Weather Songs List • Here Comes the Sun • Singing In The Rain • Follow the Sun • Fire and Rain • Love a Rainy Night • Walking On Sunshine • Ain't No Sunshine • My Girl • Drops of Jupiter • Summer Breeze • Cold Day In July • Stormy Weather • Have You Ever Seen the Rain? • It Never Rains in Southern California • Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head • You Are the Sunshine of My Life • Over the Rainbow • Rhythm of Rain • Rainy Days • Umbrella • Blame It on the Weatherman • It's Raining Men • Cold Wind • Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds • The Rain Song • Rock You Like a Hurricane • I'm Praying for Rain • Hurricane • There's No Sunshine Anymore • Kisses in the Rain • Rihanna Umbrella • Flowers Never Bend With The Rainfall • Make it Rain • I Can't Stand the Rain • Obscured By Clouds • Blame It on the Rain • Sunny Rain • Lightning Strikes • And It Rained All Night • Thunder Rolls • Storm • Snow • Fire, Fire • This Weather • Itsy Bitsy Spider • Electrical Storm • She’s Like the Wind • Pressure • Rainy Days and Mondays • Pressure Zone • Raining on Sunday
Weather Review Visible, Sat PM
Groundhog Day or Why February 2nd?
Groundhog Day • Origin: • Celtic celebration • Midpoint between Soltice & Equinox • If fair then 2nd half of winter stormy • Christian Candlemas • Scots: “If Candlemas be bright and clear, there'll be two winters in the year'‘ • English: ``If Candlemas be sunny and warm, ye may mend your mittens and look for a storm.''
Groundhog Day • Germans brought tradition to Pennsylvania • Tradition evolved to whether the groundhog (i.e., woodchuck) saw its shadow • Accuracy? < 40% • “No skill”
CHAPTER 1 THE TURBULENT ATMOSPHERE
THREATS FROM THE SKY • Weather-related events cause an estimated $10 billion in property damage annually • Virtually no part of the globe is free of the threat of extreme weather
Billion Dollar Weather Disasters Fig. 1.2, p. 5
THREATS FROM THE SKY • “Extreme and unusual weather” are the focus of public fears, and are often the impetus behind our quest for knowledge about the atmosphere • In the United States, the risk of death due to a weather event is relatively small when compared to other risks • About two in one million
THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • Our atmosphere is a delicate life-giving blanket ofair that surrounds the earth • Warmth for our planet is provided primarily by the sun’s energy • Radiant energy drives the atmosphere into the patterns of everyday wind and weather, and allows life to flourish
Very Thin Slice of Life If the earth were the size of a basketball, the atmosphere would be about the thickness of a sheet of paper.
THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • The earth’s atmosphere is a thin, gaseous envelope containing: • 78% nitrogen (N2) • 21% oxygen (O2) • water vapor (H2O) (volume variable) • carbon dioxide (CO2) (volume variable) • Almost 99% of the atmosphere is within 20 miles of the earth’s surface
Particulates (Aerosols) • 1 cm3 of air can contain as many as 200,000 non-gaseous particles. • dust • dirt (soil) • ocean spray • volcanic ash • water • pollen • pollutants O3 1 cm = 0.4 in
Role of Particulates • Scattering of sunlight. • Condensation nuclei for water vapor. • Surface or catalyst for atmospheric chemistry.
PM 10 and PM 2.5 • Fine Particles 10μm and 2.5μm • μm = μ = micron = micrometer • “Spare the Air” Nights • Unhealthy Air
THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • Water is the only substance in our atmosphere that is found naturally as a gas (water vapor), liquid (water), and solid (ice). • Both water vapor and carbon dioxide are important greenhouse gases.
CO2 Cycle Fig. 1.7, p. 10
CO2 Time Series Fig. 1.8, p. 10
OZONE • “Good” ozone (O3) in the stratosphere protects life from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. • At the surface, “bad” ozone is the main ingredient of photochemical smog.
Ozone Formation • Surface Ozone
Ozone Destruction • Stratospheric Ozone • UV radiation has enough energy to naturally break up the molecule. • Acclerated by CFCs’ • Hairspray, freon etc. • Catalyst • Accelerate Breakdown
Ozone Hole 1978
Ozone Hole 1988
Ozone Hole 1998
Ozone Hole 2008