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Week 2 Class Notes

Week 2 Class Notes

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Week 2 Class Notes

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  1. Tonight • Weather Review • Atmosphere (Chapter 1) • Weather Observations • Geography 101 (in class aggignment) • Weather Maps • Next Week • Heat & Energy (chapter 2) • More Weather Maps Week 2 Class Notes

  2. Weather Review

  3. Weather Review

  4. Weather Review

  5. Weather Review

  6. Tue 10 PM

  7. Wed 10 AM

  8. Wed 10 PM

  9. Thu 10 AM

  10. Thu 10 PM

  11. Fri 10 AM

  12. Fri 10 PM

  13. Sat 10 AM

  14. The Lighthouse's Tale • Winter Wonderland • Rainy Day Woman • Strangers in the Wind • Walking On Clouds • Catch the Wind • Riders on the Storm • Steal My Sunshine • And It Rained All Night • Flowers Never Bend with the Rainfall • Gravity's Rainbow • Hey Mr. Rain • No Rain • One Rainy Wish • Acid Rain Drops • Dust in the Wind Weather Songs • I Can't Stand The Rain • Its raining man • Hurricane • Sun is Shining • Singing in the Rain • Come Clean • Purple Rain • I'm Only Happy When It Rains • If You Steal My Sunshine • Hello Sunshine • Hotel California • Raindrops Keep Fallin on My Head • It's Raining On Prom Night • Blame It On The Rain • Make it Rain • Ain't no Sunshine • Rock You Like A Hurricane • The rain song • I Wish It Would Rain • Stormy Weather • Snowball • Pennies from Heaven • Five Feet High and Rising • Lightning Strikes • Summer • Holidays in the Sun • Westwind • She’s like the Wind • Running Against the Wind

  15. Here Comes the Sun • Singing In The Rain • Follow the Sun • Fire and Rain • Love a Rainy Night • Walking On Sunshine • Ain't No Sunshine • My Girl • Drops of Jupiter • Summer Breeze • Cold Day In July • Stormy Weather • Have You Ever Seen the Rain? • It Never Rains in Southern California • Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head • You Are the Sunshine of My Life • Over the Rainbow • Rhythm of Rain • Rainy Days • Umbrella • Blame It on the Weatherman • It's Raining Men • Cold Wind • Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds • The Rain Song • Rock You Like a Hurricane • I'm Praying for Rain • Hurricane • Pressure Zone • Raining on Sunday • There's No Sunshine Anymore • Kisses in the Rain • Rihanna Umbrella • Flowers Never Bend With The Rainfall • Make it Rain • I Can't Stand the Rain • Obscured By Clouds • Blame It on the Rain • Sunny Rain • Lightning Strikes • And It Rained All Night • Thunder Rolls • Storm • Snow • Fire, Fire • This Weather • Itsy Bitsy Spider • Electrical Storm • She’s Like the Wind • Pressure Weather Songs • How I Wish it Would Rain • Let it Snow • You Are My Sun Shine • Its Raining Men • Tears and Rain • Rain Stained Melodies • Ain't No Sunshine • No Rain • Rain Down On Me • Wheel in the Sky • Frosty the Snow Man • And it Rained All Night • Rain • A Hard Rains a Gonna Fall • Blueberry Rain • Pennies From Heaven • I Can’t Stand the Rain • Crooked Teeth • Make it Rain • Riders on the storm • Let the rain fall down • Rainy Days • It's Raining Men • Fire and Rain • Texas Flood • Let it Rain • The Wind Cries Mary • Sunday Morning • Riders On the Storm • Rainy Days and Mondays

  16. The Atmosphere

  17. Thin If the earth were the size of an apple, the skin would be about the same as the atmosphere.

  18. Precious Commodity • Important medium for life • Plants get most of their mass from carbon in the air • Animals rely on oxygen • Chemical composition determines • “Breathability” • Radiation balance • How much sunlight is reflected • How much sunlight is absorbed • How much outbound (thermal) radiation is absorbed

  19. Composition • Permanent and Variable Gases

  20. Particulates (Aerosols) • 1 cm3 of air can contain as many as 200,000 non-gaseous particles. • dust • dirt (soil) • ocean spray • volcanic ash • water • pollen • pollutants O3

  21. Role of Particulates • Scattering of sunlight. • Condensation nuclei for water vapor. • Surface or catalyst for atmospheric chemistry.

  22. PM 10 and PM 2.5 • Fine Particles 10μm and 2.5μm • μm = μ = micron = micrometer • “Spare the Air” Nights • Unhealthy Air

  23. Origin of the Atmosphere

  24. Origin of the Atmosphere

  25. Primordial Atmosphere • First Atmosphere • Planet Formation: Hydrogen, Helium (Methane, Ammonia) from the solar nebula (very light gasses) O3

  26. Secondary Atmosphere • Second Atmosphere • Volcanic Outgassing(~85% H2O, ~10% CO2, ~ SO2, ~ ash) • Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Sulfur compounds • Nitrogen compounds • Cometary Impacts (H2O, CO2) O3

  27. Present Atmosphere • Third Atmosphere (present day) • Removal of Carbon Dioxide (back on the increase?) • Water (Ocean stores 5 times atmosphere) • Photosynthesis • Photoplankton absorption • Nitrogen increase (breakup of nitrogen compounds by UV) • Oxygen increase (photosynthesis) O3

  28. Atmospheric Pressure • aka Barometric Pressure • Weight of column of air • Atmospheric Pressure & Density ALWAYS DECREASE WITH ALTITUDE O3

  29. Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere • Tropopause • Stratosphere • Stratopause • Mesosphere • Mesopause • Thermosphere • Exosphere

  30. Lower Atmosphere • Troposphere: • Greek word “tropein” = change • Extending to about 36,000’ (10 km.) • Contains most of atmosphere and most “weather.” • 80% of the atmosphere • Tropopause – isothermal layer (36,000 - 65,000’) • 99.99997% of atmosphere by mass is below 60,000’ • Stratosphere: • 65,000 -165,000’ • Temperature increase because of ozone absorption of UV • Region is very stable against vertical air motions and its structure is “stratified.”

  31. Upper Atmosphere • Mesosphere: • “Middle sphere” • 165,000’ – 295,000’ • Only 0.01% of the total atmosphere but same percentage of gases. • Thermosphere: • > 295,000’ • “Hot Layer” • Very low density and exposed to the greatest amount of solar insolation. • Changes in solar output greatly affect the temperature in the thermosphere. These changes cause the region to shrink and puff out, providing atmospheric drag on low orbit satellites in space.

  32. Higher Layers • Exosphere: The outer limits of earth’s atmosphere. • The interface between earth and space. • Ionosphere • Not a True Layer - Electrified region • Top of stratosphere through most of mesosphere • “Reflects” radio waves

  33. AM Radio and the Ionosphere AM radio absorption/reflection depends upon the ionization states of molecules in the ionosphere.

  34. Standard Atmosphere Define values for atmospheric temperature, density, pressure and other properties over a wide range of altitudes.

  35. Primary Levels 1000 mb = Surface 850 mb = 5,000’ 700 mb = 10,000’ 500 mb = 18,000’ (middle of atmosphere) 300 mb = 30,000’

  36. Lapse Rate • The change of temperature with altitude • Usually cools with altitude • Inversions – warming with height • Isothermal – no change with height • Approximate average lapse rate: • ~ 3.6 oF (2o C) per 1000 feet • This rate changes from day to day • Due to different airmasses • Changes in humidity.

  37. Greenhouse Gasses • CO2 –carbon dioxide • H2O - water • N2O – nitrous oxides • CH4 - methane • O3 – Ozone (insignificant) • Transparent in visible wavelengths • emitted by the sun • Absorption in the infrared wavelengths • emitted by the earth’s surface

  38. Carbon Dioxide CO2 • Sources • vegetative decay • volcanic eruptions • animal exhalation • combustion of fossil fuels • Sinks • dissolves in water • photosynthesis (oxygen production) • phytoplankton absorption (limestone formation) O3

  39. Carbon Dioxide Concentration

  40. Carbon Dioxide Concentration

  41. Ozone (O3) • Two Types of Ozone • Surface (i.e., tropospheric) • Primary ingredient in photochemical smog • “Spare the Air” days • Stratospheric (6 to 31 mi) • Naturally forms • Protective layer from UV

  42. Ozone Destruction • Surface Ozone

  43. Ozone Destruction • Stratospheric Ozone • UV radiation has enough energy to naturally break up the molecule. • Acclerated by CFCs’ • Hairspray, freon etc. • Catalyst • Accelerate Breakdown

  44. Ozone Destruction

  45. Ozone Hole 1978

  46. Ozone Hole 1988