Assessing and Teaching Spelling Lara McDowell Janna Martinson Tanya Kmiech Carrie Shull Molly Johnson
PreCommunicative Spelling • Typical of preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 • The child uses scribbles, letters, and letterlike forms and shows a preference for uppercase letters. • There is no understanding of phoneme-grapheme correspondence. • The child’s writing shows a lack of understanding of conventions of print such as spaces between words and left to right progression of writing.
Semiphonetic Spelling • Ages 5 and 6 • The child has some awareness that letters are used to represent sounds and may use abbreviated one-, two-, or three-letter spellings to represent an entire word ( e.g. DA for day, LF for laugh) • Demonstrates awareness to left-to-right progression but tends to run letters together with little or no sense of separate words ( e.g. RUDF for Are you deaf?)
Phonetic Spelling • Typically, 6 years old • The child represent all essential sound features in spelling a word and chooses letters on the basis of sound (e.g. PEKT for peeked, KOM for come) • The child is aware of not only sounds but also of mouth positions used to make sounds (e.g. y may be used to spell /w/ because the mouth position to say the letter name y is the same as to say /w/.
Transitional Spelling • Typically 7 to 8 years old • The child begins to use conventional alternatives for representing sounds and includes a vowel in every syllable (e.g. AFTERNEWN for afternoon, TRUBAL for trouble). • Child becomes more aware of patterns in words • Many words are spelled correctly but words with irregular spellings continue to be misspelled. • The child’s spelling may become a mixture of phonetic components and salient visual features in words
Correct Spelling • Typically reach this stage by age 8 or 9 • The child spells many words correctly and applies the basic rules of the English orthographic system. • The Child recognizes when words “look” incorrect and can consider alternative spellings.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE • 26 letters in the alphabet • 44 phonemes • More than 500 spellings to represent the 44 phonemes!
Formal Spelling Assessment • Achievement Tests • Standardized Spelling Tests • Norm referenced • Recall and Recognition • Achievement tests with Spelling Subtests • Iowa Tests of Basic Skills • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement • Peabody Individual Achievement Test • Wide Range Achievement Test
Diagnostic Tests • Standardized Spelling Tests • Norm referenced • Provide Detailed Information • Criterion Referenced Tests • Fixed Criteria • Determines Mastery • Measures Progress • Used for Instructional Planning
Informal Spelling Assessment • Diagnostic information • Written Work • Oral Responses • Attitude
Types of Informal Assessments • Dictated Spelling Tests • Informal Spelling Inventory • Curriculum-Based Measurement • Spelling Error Analysis • Cloze Procedure • Probes • Modality Testing
Teaching Spelling Skills An effective spelling program teaches spelling through the use of phonemic, whole-word, and morphemic instruction that use both direct instruction and other research-based supplemental materials.
Spelling Competencies • Auditory discrimination: Ability to discriminate consonant sounds and vowel sounds and use correct word pronunciation • Consonants: Knowledge of consonants in initial, final, and medial positions in words and ability to identify consonant blends i.e. /bl/ in blend and /cl/ in close • Phonograms: Ability to identify phonograms in initial, medial, final positions in words and ability to identify word phonograms • A phonogram is any written symbol that stands for a sound, syllable, morpheme, or word. (more commonly referred to as the rime part of the word that comes after the onset, from the vowel to the end of the word i.e. “dog”- d is the onset and og is the rime/phonogram
Plurals: Ability to form a plural by adding s, es, changing f to v, making medial change, and knowledge of exceptions • Syllabication: Ability to divide words into syllables gorilla- go/rill/a • Structural elements: Knowledge of root words, prefixes, and suffixes • Ending changes: Ability to change ending of words that end in final e, final y, and final consonants
Vowel diagraphs and diphthongs: Ability to spell words in which a vowel diagraph forms one sound (ai, ea, ei, ie) or a diphthong forms a blend (oe, ou, ow) • *A dipthong is a combination of the short vowel sound put together. (known as the “gliding vowel” because of it’s smooth movement when being spoken) • Silent e: Knowledge of single-syllable words that end in silent e i.e in the word game- the silent e creates a long /a/ sound.
When creating spelling lists you should… • Allow students to choose words from their writing. • Teach words that students commonly misspell when writing. • Teach words that students are most likely to use in their writing. • Identify words that fit different but related patterns (ee and ea for the long e sound, words that end in tion, etc.)
Here are a few great online resources for teachers! • Spelling City • edHelper
Rule-Based Instruction • Based on teaching rules and generalizations using linguistic or phonics approach • Linguistic approach stresses idea of the regularity in phoneme-grapheme correspondence and words are selected according to their linguistic patterns i.e. cool, fool, pool; hitting, running, batting • Phonics approach stresses this same relationship, but within parts of words. This allows the student to determine how sounds should be spelled • These generalizations apply to more than 75% of words. However, students should still be taught that there are exceptions to some rules that do not follow such generalizations • Despite the frequency of phonetic teaching approaches, only about 50% of words follow regular phonetic rules.
Multisensory Approach • Spelling involves using skills in visual, auditory, and motor sensory modalities. Ferdinand’s Approach (VAKT) • Teacher writes/says word while student watches/listens • Student traces with finger while reciting word • Word is written from memory. If correct, it is place in file box. If incorrect, the second step is repeated. • Tracing method is not always needed at later stages. The student eventually learns the words by looking at it in print while writing it, and finally by just looking at it.
Multisensory Approach Cntd. Gillingham Method Day 1- Students get word list and study on their own Day 2- Teacher gives verbal feedback after taking spelling test, and students simultaneously say aloud and write the correct spelling of any incorrect spelled word 5 times Day 3- Procedure is repeated, except misspelled words are written correctly 10 times Day 4- Repeated 15 times Day 5- To assess accuracy, students write words from list verbally presented by teacher
Test-Study-Test Technique • Pretest at beginning of each unit of study. • Words misspelled on pretest become study list. • After instruction, posttest determines mastery. • Misspelled words on posttest are added to the next unit.
Fixed and Flow Word Lists • Fixed Word Lists • Frequently Used • New list every week • Tested on Fridays • Seldom Results in Mastery • Flow Word Lists • Words are dropped from list only after mastery. • New word replaces mastered word.
Lists for Learners with LD • Initially should be limited to high frequency words. • Misspelled words from their writing. • 5-10 words per list • 2-3 words introduced daily and practiced until list is mastered.
Modifications and Other Considerations For Students with Learning Difficulties
Study Strategies This strategy has been found to increase immediate recall of words in students with learning problems: • 1. Say the word • 2. Write and say the word • 3. Check the word by comparing it to a model • 4. Trace and say the word • 5. Write the word from memory and check. • 6. Repeat 1-5.
Self-correction • Hear the word on audiotape • Write each word • Compare each word with a model on an answer key • Correct misspellings with proofreading marks • Write the word correctly • Repeat the task.
Visual Mnemonics • Can be used on spelling lists or flash cards • Method: • Student closes eyes • Visualizes the word • Attempts to see the mnemonic in the word • Writes the word from memory *general recall can also be used, such as “the principal is your pal” or “dessert is something sweet”.
Self-Questioning • Do I know this word? • How many syllables do I hear in this word? (write down # of syllables) • I will write the word I think it should be spelled. • Do I have the right number of syllables. • Is there any part of the word that I am not sure how to spell? (Underline and try spelling it again) • Does the word look right to me? (No? Underline and try again. Listen to find any missing syllables) • When I finish spelling, I will tell myself that I have worked hard.
Peer Tutoring • S - spot the word • P- picture the word • E- eyes closed • L- look to see if the visual picture is correct • L- look away and write the word • E- examine the spelling word by checking it • R- repeat the procedure if the word is spelled incorrectly or reward if spelled correctly
Imitation Methods • Teacher provides both oral and written model of spelling word. • Student imitates model by spelling word out loud, and by writing it. • Student is given immediate praise or feedback for a correct response, and incorrect responses are retrained. • Repeat the method until student can spell and write the word without any assistance. • Administer spelling probe to check mastery and retention.
Types of Correctional Procedures • Visual image • Word Meaning • Add words misspelled in compositions to spelling lists. • Increases motivation
Teaching and Reinforcing Spelling in a Language Arts Curriculum • A program that teaches both learning to spell and read can be very effective • -reading gives the student the meaning of words, and correct usage • Oral reading helps the student to learn correct entire word sounds • Spelling lists can consist of words from reading vocabulary • Can encourage use of spelling words in writing
Dictionary Usage • Training in using the dictionary is an important part of a spelling program • Encourage independence in finding spellings • Provide information such as syllabication, meaning, pronunciation, synonyms and homonyms • Picture dictionaries for younger grades
Dictionary Usage • Technique • Predict possible spellings -determine root words and affixes -determine related words -determine sounds in the word -- Check predicted spelling by using dictionary
Considerations for Secondary School • Social and practical significance • Own interests and areas of study • Vocational words • Teach with other activities • Strategies to compensate for poor spelling can be taught