Automotive Batteries • WHAT AND AUTOMTIVE BATTERY DOES • A battery supplies power to the starter and ignition system to start the engine. • A battery also supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system.
Automotive Batteries • Automotive batteries acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system. • An automotive battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy • An automotive battery evens out voltage spikes and prevents them from damaging other components in the electrical system
Automotive Batteries • What the standby battery does: • Supplies electrical power to critical systems in the event of a power outage. • Acts as a voltage stabilizer, to smooth out fluctuations in the electrical generation systems. • Temporarily holds large electrical loads as electric utilities switch from one generation system to another.
How a Battery is Made • How a Battery is Made • Batteries are made of five basic components: • 1. A resilient Plastic container. • 2. Positive and negative internal plates made of lead.
How a Battery is Made • 3. Plate separators made of porous synthetic material. • 4.Electrolyte, a dilute solution of sulfuric acid and water better known as battery acid. • 5.Lead terminals, the connection point between the battery and whatever it powers.
How a Battery is Made • Most automotive battery containers and their covers are made of polypropylene. • A typical 12-volt car battery, case is divided into six sections, or cells
How a Battery is Made • A battery must have positive and negative plates to conduct a charge. • Grids or plates are made from lead or an alloy of lead and other metals.
How a Battery is Made • A mixture of lead oxide -- which is powdered lead, sulfuric acid and water is applied to the grids • Expander material made of powdered sulfates is added to the paste to produce negative plates • The expander material is not added to the positive plates.
How a Battery is Made • Pasted positive and negative plates must be separated to prevent short circuits. • Separators are thin sheets of porous, insulating material used as spacers between the positive and negative plates.
How a Battery is Made • Fine pores in the separators allow electrical current to flow between the plates while preventing short circuits.
How a Battery is Made • A positive plate is paired with a negative plate and a separator to make an element • There is one element per battery cell • Elements are dropped into the cells in the battery case • The cells are connected with a metal that conducts electricity.
How a Battery is Made • The lead terminals, or posts, are welded on. • The battery is then filled with electrolyte - or battery acid -- a mixture of sulfuric acid and water, and the cover is attached.
How a Battery is Made • After a battery is made its is • Checked for leaks. • Charged for several hours. • Labels added
Battery Quiz 1. What supplies power to the ignition and the starting system • A. Starter motor • B. Battery • C. Alternator • D. None of the above
Battery Quiz 2. What component acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system? • 1. Voltage regulator • 2. Current regulator • 3. Battery • 4. Alternator
Battery Quiz 3. How many cell is in an automotive battery • A. 12 • B. 6. • C. 4 • D. 2
Battery Quiz 4. Each cell of an automotive battery will supply how many volts? • A. 2 • B. 4 • C. 10 • D. 12
Battery Quiz 5. A mixture of sulfuric acid and water is called: • A. Battery liquid • B. Battery activator • C. Electrical charge • D. Electrolyte
Battery Quiz 6. There is how many elements element per battery cell? • A. 1 • B. 2 • C. 4 • D. 6
Battery Quiz 7. A battery must have ______________ to conduct electricity. • A. Negative plates only • B. Positive plates only • C. Positive and Neutral plates • D. Positive and Negative plates
Battery Quiz 8. Most automotive battery containers and their covers are made of: • A. Steel • B. Wood • C. Soft plastic • D. polypropylene
Battery Quiz 9. After a battery is made its is: • A. Charged for several hours • B. Check for leaks • C. Has labels added • D. All the above
Battery Quiz 10. A _________ supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system. • A. Alternator • B. Starter • C. Fuel cell • D. Battery
Battery Operation • A battery convert chemical energy into electrical energy • When an atom loses and electron it become a positively charge Ion • When am atom gains an electron it become a negatively charge ion. • Battery produce Voltage and Amperage. • Voltage is defined and electrical pressure • Amperage is defined as electron flow from one atom to another.
Battery Operation • When you have and abundance of negatively charge ions and a abundance of positively charged ions connected together in an electrical circuit current will begin to flow. • The larger the difference between the positive ions and the negative ions the greater the voltage or electrical pressure difference. • The greater the flow electrons from one atom to another the greater the current flow
Battery Operation • Battery have two different ratings. • 1. Cold cranking amperage (CCA): Is the ability of a battery to maintain 7.3 volts for 30 seconds at 0 degrees F • 2. Reserve Capacity (RC): Is the ability of a battery to supply 10.5 volts at 25 amps at 80 degrees F.
Battery Operation • A battery stores electricity for future use. • A battery develops voltage from the chemical reaction produced when two unlike materials, such as the positive and negative plates, are immersed in electrolyte, a solution of sulfuric acid and water. • In a typical lead-acid battery, the voltage is approximately 2 volts per cell, for a total of 12 volts.
Battery Operation • Electricity flows from the battery as soon as there is a circuit between the positive and negative terminals. This happens when any load that needs electricity, such as the radio, is connected to the battery.
Battery Operation • When a battery is discharge the plates have the same amount of electrical charge. • As a battery discharges, the lead plates become more chemically alike, the acid becomes weaker and less voltage is produced.
Battery Operation • You can recharge a discharged battery by feeding electrical current back into the battery. • A full charge restores the chemical difference between the plates and leaves the battery ready to deliver its full power.
Batteries • SPECIFIC GRAVITYSpecific gravity means exact weight. • A "Hydrometer" or a "Refractometer" compares the exact weight of electrolyte with that of water. • Strong electrolyte in a charged battery is heavier than weak electrolyte in a discharged battery. • By weight, the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is about 36% acid and 64% water.
Batteries • The specific gravity of water is 1.000. • Acid is 1.835 times heavier than water, so its specific gravity is 1.835. • The electrolyte mixture of water and acid has a specific gravity of 1.270, usually stated as "twelve and seventy."
Battery Operation • This unique process of discharging and charging in the lead-acid battery means that energy can be discharged and restored over and over again. • This is what's known as the cycling ability in a battery.
Battery Quiz 1. You can recharge a discharged battery by: • A. Turning the headlights on • B. Replacing the electricity that has been removed • C. Removing the positive battery cable • D. Replacing the Negative battery cable
Battery Quiz 2. Technician A says a fully charge battery should have a specific gravity of: • A. 1.130 • B. 1.220 • C. 1.260 • D. 1.270
Battery Quiz 3. What tool is used to measure battery specific gravity? • A. Milometer • B. Micrometer • C. Kilometer • D. Hydrometer
Battery Quiz 4. Electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric acid and _____________ : • A. Hydrogen • B. Carbon • C. Sulfuric carbon • D. Water
Battery Quiz 5. This unique process of discharging and charging a lead-acid battery is called: • A. Discharging • B. Cycling • C. Overcharging • D. None of the above
Batteries Battery are rated in both cold cranking amps and reserve capacity. Cold Cranking Amps is the amount of amperage a battery can supply at 0 Degrees while maintaining 9.6 volts for 30 seconds Reserve capacity: The amount of time a battery can supply 10 volts at 25 amps when not being charged
Batteries • When a battery becomes discharged it must be recharged. • A battery can be charged by the vehicle alternators or by an external battery charger • When connecting or disconnecting a battery charger care should be taken not to create a spark.
Batteries • When connecting or disconnecting a battery charger care should be taken not to create a spark. • Hydrogen and oxygen can explode • Spark will cause a battery to explode • The gasses created during charging are explosive
Batteries • When charging a battery always connect the positive cable first and the negative cable last • When removing battery cables disconnect the Negative cable first and the Positive cable last. • Most automotive manufactures recommend disconnecting a battery before its recharged.