Understanding the New Testament The Gospels © John Stevenson, 2009
The Quadriga A four-fold method of interpretation • The literal is the plain obvious meaning. • The moral was what it meant for human behavior. • The allegorical meaning is what it means for our faith, beliefs or doctrines. • The anagogical meaning is what it tells us about the future (heaven).
The Quadriga An example: The City of Jerusalem • In the literal sense this meant the physical city of Jerusalem. • Morally it could represent the human soul. • Allegorically it could be used to represent the Church of Christ. • Finally, anagogically, it could be referring the new heavenly Jerusalem.
Luke 9:51 When the days were approaching for His ascension, He was determined to go to Jerusalem…
Luke 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, just as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not have it!
Galatians 4:25-26 Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother.
Hebrews 12:22-23 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels, 23 to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,
Reformed Church Roman Catholic Church Scripture interprets scripture Only the Church holds authority for determining the correct meaning of scripture Has historically discouraged individual Bible study Was based upon individual Bible study
Basic Principles of Hermeneutics • Scripture interprets Scripture • The Literary Genre should be considered • Context is Key. • Immediate Context • Context within the book • Context within the entire Bible • Historical Context
What is significant about the title MESSIAH? • “Anointed One” (Greek: Christ) • The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me (Isaiah 61:1). • Anointing in Old Testament times. • “You are the Christ” (Matt 16:16).
John the Baptist • What is the significance of baptism? • Cleansing • Identification • John was the forerunner of the Messiah • Matthew presents John’s ministry as a new exodus event
The Gospels Mark Luke John Matthew Jesus as the Son who came to Serve Jesus as the Perfect Teacher Jesus as the Son of God Jesus as the King of the Jews The Synoptic Gospels John
MARK Introduction Public Ministry You are the Christ! Private Ministry Death, Burial, and Resurrection • Baptism LUKE Introduction Miracles Journey to Jerusalem Death, Burial, and Resurrection • Birth • 12 years old 9:51 Five Sermons, each introduced by a historical narrative Death, Burial, and Resurrection MATTHEW • Birth • Baptism Introduction
John the Baptist • All four Gospels emphasize the ministry of John the Baptist. • John is a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy (Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 3:1). • His message. • Calling for repentance • Pointing to Messiah
Baptism of Jesus • Significance of Baptism. • Identification. • Proclamation from the Father: This is my beloved Son (Matthew 3:17). • Testimony of the Holy Spirit. • Significance of the Dove. • Significance of the Spirit.
Baptism of Jesus Temptation of Jesus Sonship stated by the Father Sonship challenged by Satan Second Adam is taken through a second probationary testing
Preaching Ministry of Jesus Matthew Mark Luke Prophecy: “The time is fulfilled” (1:15) Prophecy: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me…” (4:18-19) Prophecy: “Those who are in darkness will see a great light” (4:14-16) “Repent for the Kingdom is at hand” (4:17) “Repent and believe” (1:15) “I must preach the kingdom of God” (4:43)
Appointment of the Apostles • Apostle versus Disciple. • They are to be Fishers of Men. • They represent the New Israel of the New Covenant. • Twelve. • Seated on Twelve Thrones (Mt 19:28; Rev 21:14). • Foundation stones of the Church (Eph. 2:20).
The Great Confession You are the Christ! • Made by Peter • John records a similar confession by Peter (John 6:68-69). • Peter is speaking as the spokesmen of the Apostles. • Jesus is THE One from God. • Jesus reveals the Cross.
Matthew 16:18-19 “I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.”
Transfiguration What is its significance? • Encourage those who will see the cross. • Graphic testimony of the Law and the Prophets. • Centrality of the Cross (Luke’s reference to “His exodus”). • Promise of the Future. • Testimony of the Father.
The King Comes to Jerusalem • Triumphal Entry • Cleansing of the Temple • A Question of Authority
Lord’s Supper • Setting of the Passover • “This is my body” • The New Covenant • Promise of the Second Coming
Crucifixion and Death • The Trials: With what was Jesus charged? • The real indictment • The Roman charge • The Significance of the Cross • “My God, My God, Why have You forsaken Me?”
The Resurrection • Promised in the Old Testament (Ps 16:8-11) • Unexpected by the Disciples • The Ultimate Sign of Christ’s Identity
Matthew 28:18-20 And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.”
What is the Kingdom of God?
Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever;A scepter of uprightness is the scepter of Thy kingdom. (Psalm 45:6).Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom,And Thy dominion endures throughout all generations. (Psalm 145:13).
Daniel 2:21-22 I kept looking, and that horn was waging war with the saints and overpowering them 22 until the Ancient of Days came and judgment was passed in favor of the saints of the Highest One, and the time arrived when the saints took possession of the kingdom.
Daniel 2:44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever.
How did the Old Testament writers describe the future kingdom?
Matthew 3:1-2 Now in those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2 “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”
Is there a difference between the Kingdom of God versus the Kingdom of Heaven?
Matthew 12:22-23 Then a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute was brought to Jesus, and He healed him, so that the mute man spoke and saw. 23 All the crowds were amazed, and were saying, “This man cannot be the Son of David, can he?”
Matthew 12:24-25 But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, “This man casts out demons only by Beelzebul the ruler of the demons.” 25 And knowing their thoughts Jesus said to them, “Any kingdom divided against itself is laid waste; and any city or house divided against itself will not stand.”
Matthew 12:26-27 “If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself; how then will his kingdom stand? 27 If I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out? For this reason they will be your judges.”
Matthew 12:28-29 “But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. 29 Or how can anyone enter the strong man’s house and carry off his property, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house.”
Mark 4:33-34 With many such parables He was speaking the word to them, so far as they were able to hear it; 34 and He did not speak to them without a parable; but He was explaining everything privately to His own disciples.
Why did Jesus speak in parables?
Matthew 13:10-12 And the disciples came and said to Him, “Why do You speak to them in parables?” 11 Jesus answered them, “To you it has been granted to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been granted. 12 For whoever has, to him more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but whoever does not have, even what he has shall be taken away from him.”
Answer the Following Questions: Group Project • What is the “big idea” of the parable? • The Kingdom is: • The Kingdom is not: Matthew 13:3-8 The Parable of the Sower Matthew 13:24-30 The Parable of the Wheat & the Tares
Matthew 13:31-32 He presented another parable to them, saying, “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field; 32 and this is smaller than all other seeds, but when it is full grown, it is larger than the garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and nest in its branches.”
Matthew 13:33 He spoke another parable to them, “The kingdom of heaven is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three pecks of flour until it was all leavened.”
Luke 17:20-21 Now having been questioned by the Pharisees as to when the kingdom of God was coming, He answered them and said, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; 21 nor will they say, 'Look, here it is!' or, 'There it is!' For behold, the kingdom of God is in your midst.”