Download
afghanistan n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Afghanistan PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Afghanistan

Afghanistan

314 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Afghanistan

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Afghanistan History and turmoil

  2. Geography • Landlocked and mountainous • Central Asia • Kabul is the capital • Trading crossroads • Bordered by six countries • Split east to west by the Hindu Kush Mountains • Except for the southwest most of the country is covered by high snow-capped mountains and valley

  3. People • At least a dozen • Baluch, ChaharAimak, Turkmen, Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Nuristani, Arab, Kirghiz, Pashai and Persian • Pashtun most dominant • Afghan refers to the Pashtuns • Royal family • About 50% of the population, Tajiks 25% • Religions • Hindu, Sikh and Jewish communities • Majority are Muslim • Consider Islam to be one of the defining aspects of their ethnic identity (Pashtun)

  4. Early History • Rule by various Persian, Greek, Sassasian and Central Asian empires • Islam brought in 8th and 9th century • Arab rule, semi-independent states • Mongolian invasions in the 1200s • Remained in control until the 1500s • Caught between control of the Mughals of northern India and the Safavids of Iran • Devastated the land, murdered the people laying siege to cities

  5. Ahmad Shah Durrani • 1747 – freed from the rule of Iranian Nadir Shah when he was assassinated • Consolidated into what is today know as Afghanistan • Able to unify the different Afghan tribes and conquered parts of Iran, Pakistan, India and Uzbekistan

  6. European Influence • British Empire and czarist Russia • The British looked to the Hindu Kush mountains as a natural barrier and the Russians were expanding south and east • “The Great Game” • Anglo-Afghan Wars • 1839 – destruction of the British army • Seized most of the cities but a popular uprising led to a massacre of 15,000 British troops • 1878 – seized most of the major cities • Installed a puppet ruler – Amir Abdur Rahman • British protectorate remained until 1919 • Third Anglo-Afghan War led to independence on August 19

  7. After Independence • King Amanullah (1919-29) • Modernized • Abolished Muslim veil for women, co-ed schools • Faced tribal and religious alienation, abdicated throne • Mohammed Zahir Shah (1933-1973) • Autocratic power, the king was the word of law • Assemblies made up of tribal elders, but were land owners and patriarchs • Growth of extremist parties on the right and left • People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan • Communist • Split into two factions • Reflected ethnic, class and ideological differences in society

  8. Pro-Communist Leadership • 1973- Sardar Mohammad Daoud seized power in a military coup • Declared Afghanistan a republic • Titled himself president • PDPA aligned with Moscow and seized power • Marxist style “reform” policy • Counter to Afghan traditions • Members of the elite, religious establishment, and intelligentsia were imprisoned, tortured or murdered • Declared a secular state and equal treatment of men and women • Curtailed the practice of purchasing brides • Land reform • By 1978 countryside insurgency was growing

  9. Soviet Intervention • December 24, 1979 the Soviet forced began to land in Kabul • They assassinated the president and installed BabrakKarmal as leader • The Karmal regime was unable to gain control outside Kabul • People opposed communist rule • Islamic fundamentalist groups began forming and waging guerilla warfare • Afghan fighters (mujahideen) made it impossible to maintain control outside cities • In 1984, started receiving aid and training from the U.S. • Began operating from camps set up by the CIA and Pakistani Intelligence within Pakistan • Osama Bin Laden became one of the CIA’s most important operatives • 1989 – the Soviets withdrew

  10. Rise of the Taliban • Warlords fought for power and control of the country throughout the 80s and early 90s • The Taliban rose to power in the mid-1990s in reaction to the anarchy and warlordism • Educated • From the southern Pashtun background • 1994 – captured Kandahar and began expanding control • 1996 – occupied Kabul • By 1998 controlled 90% of the country • Warlords formed the Northern Alliance

  11. Characteristics of the Taliban • Aided by Pakistani Intelligence • Leaders were mostly young religious students • Believed they were ordained to bring stability and the ways of Allah back to their war torn land • Sought to impose an extreme interpretation of Islam • Based on rural Pashtun tribal code • Committed massive human rights violations • Atrocities against minority populations • Provided sanctuary to Osama Bin Laden and provided a base for his (al-Qaeda) and other terrorist groups

  12. Response to 9/11 • Taliban refused to hand over Bin Laden • October 7, 2001 • U.S. and anti-terrorist collation forces began a military campaign • Targeted terrorist facilities within Afghanistan • Provided support to the Northern Alliance • Taliban fell on November 13, 2001 • Retreated into the mountains • Created an interim government • December 22, 2001 Hamid Karzai as Chairman • December 7, 2004 the country was renamed the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan