Self-Regulated Learning A key Competency The journey so far SRL – what, why, features of, strategies Inquiry Learning + MI + SRL Managing Self – a key competency group Presentation By Lyn Bird
The journey so far … • Revisiting old theories, having time to assimilate new theories • Trialling new approaches – MI • The need for SRL • Integrated curriculum driven by Inquiry Learning • MI + SRL + Integrated Inquiry = Success
Why SRL? • Benjamin Franklin wrote extensively in his “Autobiography” about techniques he used to improve his learning, erudition and self-control (Benjamin Franklin Writings, 1868/1987). (Read from Zimmerman article) • The SRL skill is one essential skill that individuals should possess in order to continually adapt to new knowledge & skills throughout the stages of their life. Individuals should become more self-regulated as learners; that is they need to develop attitudes & skills that allow them to plan, manage & evaluate their own learning (Heo, 2000). • The Curriculum Framework out lined the 8 essential skills in 1993 including Self-Management and Competitive Skills and Work and Study Skills (Read p.19, 20). • SRL is an important aspect of student academic performance and achievement in classroom settings. • A SRL perspective on students’ learning and achievement is not only distinctive, but it has profound implications for the way teachers should interact with students and the manner in which schools should be organised (Zimmerman, 1990). • There is now a shift from a focus on students’ learning ability and environments as “fixed” entities to their personally initiated processes and responses designed to improve their ability and their environments for learning. • Even the Ministry of Education now believes students will view themselves as competent learners and realize their success is to do with effort and strategy not luck and ability (Mary Chamberlain, MOE, Navcon 2004).
What is SRL? • Definitions of SRL often differ on the basis of researchers’ theoretical orientations. However, a common conceptualization of S-RLeaners is they are metacognitively (self-aware, knowledgeable, decisive about learning); motivationally (intrinsic task interest, self-starters); behaviourally ( seek out advice & information, self-instruct); active participants in their own learning (Borkowski et al, in press) • S-RLearners proactively seek out information when needed and take the necessary steps to master it. They view acquisition as a systematic and controllable process, and they accept greater responsibility for their achievement outcomes (Zimmerman, 1990). • S-RLeaners plan, set goals, organise, self-monitor, and self-evaluate at various points in the learning cycle (Corno, 1986, 1989). • S-RLeaners engage in a “self-oriented feedback” loop – a cyclic process in which students monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or strategies and react to this feedback in a variety of ways (may change perceptions of their ability or change their strategies) (Carver & Scheier, 1981). • Student learning and motivation are viewed as interdependent processes. S-RLeaners are not merely reactive to their learning outcomes; rather, they proactively seek out opportunities to learn ( Zimmerman, 1989). Learners are self-directed and self-motivated - their skill and will are integrated components of self-regulation. • SRL strategies are used purposefully by the learner in order to regulate the learning cycle and to achieve academic goals.
Five features of self-regulated learners: • Knowledge Possessors • Knowledge Utilisers • Self-Motivators • Reflective Thinkers • Personal Learning Responsibility One way to increase learner responsibility is to develop self-regulated learning skills and encourage learner autonomy. (Heo, 2000)
Key SRL Strategies • The Key Competency Group Managing Self includes the ability to: set and achieve goals, make plans, estimate time; persevere, be resourceful, get through hard patches; self-monitor, self-evaluate and change course when necessary; identify and take action regarding one’s individual and collective rights, interests, responsibilities, limits and needs; take increasing responsibility for learning; and, act within the big picture/larger context. • This key competence group encompasses key features of self-regulated learning, that is, setting and achieving goals, time management, planning, self-monitoring, self-evaluating and taking control of one’s learning. • This key competency group is about managing oneself as an individual while remembering that we are always acting in a social context. Developing inner independence comes from being given manageable amounts of responsibility for choosing when and how to go about learning (New Zealand Principal, 2004). • Metacognitive Strategies, ie, planning, monitoring, selecting, evaluating, revising – all covert processes. • Cognitive Strategies, ie, personal control processes used during learning to attend, remember, learn and think. • Motivational Strategies, ie, orienting to learning, a belief they can achieve the task, searching for understanding, and self-reinforcement. • SRL Tools – physical tools to be used in conjunction with the Cognitive Strategies to develop and activate personal control processes.
Cycle of Self-Regulated Learning 1. Plan/Forethought Stage: analyse the learning task; set goals; plan learning strategies. 3. Evaluate/Self-Reflection Stage: Self-evaluation; adaptivity; evaluating the process and the product 2. Monitor/Performance/Volitional Control Stage: Attention focusing; implement the plan; monitoring performance throughout, self-instructing Reflection goes on throughout the SRL cycle. Self-questioning facilitates the reflective process.
Goal Setting • Goals focus the learner • High goals will energise the learner • Goals increase students’ persistence • Goals set by the learner are more motivating • Effective goals are specific, immediate and challenging.
Goals Setting as a vital ingredient of SRL • Use individual goal setting books • Display the learning intentions • Allow students to set and assess their own goals • Ensure goals are measurable • Ensure goals are challenging
Creating a conducive environment for SRL Based on the constructivist principles of guiding students to formulate and research their own questions (inquiry), of allowing multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple intelligences), of encouraging group work and the use of peers as resources (cooperative learning), and of connecting new knowledge to existing knowledge. It emphasises reflection and learning through self-assessment.
Taken from: Learning: The Treasure Within. UNESCO report for Education for the 21st Century, published by the German UNESCO Commission. Neuwied; Kriftel; Berlin: Luchterhand, 1997, S. 83
Alexandra Primary School Prototype Curriculum Framework UNESCO Pillars of Learning Life-Long Learning Learning to Know + Learning to Do Learning to Live Together + Learning for Life Learner Attributes: Inspired about learning Optimistic about their opportunities Good social skills: demonstrating citizenship, empathy, strong values Aware of strengths High self-belief Brave Risk-takers Ability to learn and achieve Key Competency Group Skills: Belonging Making Meaning Thinking Relating & Contributing Managing Self Literacy Numeracy Alexandra’s Pillars of Learning – Main Curriculum Implementation Elements Knowledge Social Studies Science Technology Health & PE The Arts Essential Skills – skills to enhance learning: Inquiry Learning Strategies Thinking ICT Self- Regulated Learning Multiple Intelligence Approach: Catering for individual needs Developing strengths & weaknesses Integrated Inquiry Curriculum: Students as powerful learners Connecting Learning Building Positive Relationships: Learning to learn with/about others
Creating a conducive environment for SRL • Why MI? • You may come to regard intellectual ability more broadly. • You will provide opportunities for authentic learning based on your students' needs, interests and talents. • Parent and community involvement in your school may increase. • Students will be able to demonstrate and share their strengths. • When you "teach for understanding," your students accumulate positive educational experiences and the capability for creating solutions to problems in life.
Why Inquiry Learning? • The inquiry approach to learning and teaching supports contemporary learning theory. This approach is built upon the idea that students are actively involved in learning and continually reconstruct understandings in the light of experience. • It encourages students to participate in active investigation, and to integrate, rather than separate knowledge, as they move from acquisition of facts to the development of deep understanding. • The planning process described as Integrated Inquiry by Kath Murdoch, is a model in which a sequence of activities and experiences is developed to build on and challenge student perceptions. • “This sequence is inquiry-based in that it begins with students’ prior knowledge and experience and moves through a deliberate process wherein that knowledge is extended, challenged and refined.” Kath Murdoch, Classroom Connections, p5 • In this model, teachers are encouraged to group activities and learning experiences under the following broad headings: • Tuning in • Finding out • Sorting out • Going further • Making conclusions • Taking action
MI /Bloom’s/Inquiry Planning • Big topic/idea from students • Teacher’s fertile question • Key curriculum concepts • Key skills • Links to main ELA & AOs • Learning intentions developed • Bloom’s/MI activities developed • Immersion activities • WWK/WWTHWK/WWWTK • Student driven activities incorporated
Conducive Learning Environment + SRL = success MI + Bloom’s (HOTs) + Inquiry + SRL = academic achievement
Key competency group Managing Self • Managing self includes making plans, self-assessing, setting and achieving personal goals, developing strategies to overcome hurdles and knowing when a change of course is advisable. MOE June 2005