Self-Regulated Learning Students take charge of their own learning.
Self-Regulated Learning • Students are able to monitor, assess, and modify their behavior based on their evaluation of what they have successfully learned. • Students are able to be in charge of their learning and studying environment. (Winne, 1995)
Self-Regulated Learning • Students can manage their time. • Students can request support when needed. • Students believe that they can be academically successful (self-efficacy). • Students are able to set goals, plan, and use study strategies. • Students are able manage their emotions, i.e. test anxiety. (Winne, 1995)
What does Self-Regulated Learning Look Like? • Students know cognitive and study strategies. • Students know when to use the strategies. • Students can plan and manage their time. • Students can focus on learning and goals. • Students believe they can learn (self efficacy). • Students have a positive attitude towards learning. • Students can self-motivate to learn. (Ley & Young, 1998 ; Schraw, Crippen, & Hartley, 2006; Winne, 1995)
Self-Regulated Learners’ Task Behaviors • Analyze the task: Interpret the task requirements. • Set specific goals: Select appropriate strategies. • Implement strategies: Monitor progress (internal feedback). • Adjust the strategies. • Use self-motivational strategies: • Keep on task. Combat discouragement. Deal with difficulties. (Vockell, 2001)
Self-Regulated Learning • Can be taught and can be learned: • Self-assessment: • Monitor your own performance. • Self-judgment: • Evaluate your own work. • Self-Modification: • Set goals. • Use self talk. • Change the environment -eliminate distractions. • Ask for help. (Vockell, 2001)
Self-Regulated Learning High achieving students: • Set more detailed learning goals. • Use a multiplicity of strategies. • Self-monitor more frequently. • Systematically modify efforts, goals, and strategies. (Rubin & Reis, 2006)
Self-Regulated Skills Cycle (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998)
Phase 1:Forethought • When will I write the paper? • Where will I write the paper? • How will I get started writing? • What will help me write the paper? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998)
Phase 2:Performance Control • Am I accomplishing the work? • Is this work taking more time than I thought? • Can I encourage myself (use self-talk) to keep going? • What will help me? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998)
Phase 3:Self-Reflection • Did I do a good job writing that paper? • How did I keep on task? • What helped me? • Did I give myself enough time? • Did I choose the right study strategies? • Did I set rewards and consequences for myself? • Did I follow my plans? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998)
Self-Regulation Strategies • Organizing Information: • Outline. • Summarize. • Highlight. • Use index cards to self test. • Draw diagrams. • Use concept maps. (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002)
Self-Regulation Strategies • Set Goals. • Devise a plan to achieve the goals. • Manage your time well. • Keep records and self-monitor: • Take notes. • Gather information. • Organize information. (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002)
Self-Regulation Strategies • Rehearsing and memorizing: • Use mnemonic devices. • Teach someone else the concepts. • Make up and answer sample questions. • Use mental imagery. • Overlearn-Use repetition. • Say notes aloud. (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002)
Self-Regulation Strategies • Behavioral: • Self assessment: • Break the task down into its parts. • Set goals. • Set up consequences for yourself: • Use positive reinforcement: • What will I do to reward myself for a job well done? • Set consequences: • What will I do if I do not follow through? (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002)
Self-Regulation Strategies • Where will I gather Information? • Library, Internet, textbook, notes. • Where will I study? • Eliminate distractions, comfortableness, plan study periods and breaks. • Where and when will I request assistance? • Help from peers & professors. • Tutoring.
Self-Regulation Strategies • Structuring the environment: • Arrange the physical setting. • Eliminate distractions. • Break up study periods. • Spread study periods over time. • Seeking assistance: • Help from peers. • Help from the professor. • Tutoring.
References Jakubowski, T., & Dembo, M. (April, 2002). Social cognitive factors associated with the academic self-regulation of undergraduate college students in a learning and study strategies course. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Ley, K., & Young, D. (1998). Self-regulation behaviors in underprepared (developmental) and regular admission college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology,23, 42-64. doi:10.1006/ceps.1997.0956 Ruban, L., & Reis, S. M. (2006). Patterns of self-regulatory strategy use among low-achieving and high-achieving university students. Roeper Review,28, 148-156. doi:10.1080/02783190609554354
References Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139. doi:10.1007/s11165-005-3917-8 Vockell, E. L. (2001). Self-regulation of learning. In E. L. Vockell (Ed.), Educational psychology: A practical approach (Online ed.). Retrieved from http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_self.htm Winne, P. H. (1995). Inherent details in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist,30(4), 173-187. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3004_2
References Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 65-70. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2 Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 1-19). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.