Self-regulated learning In 21st Century Classrooms Dr. Allyson Hadwin email@example.com www.srlcanada.ca Tweet your thoughts #SRLcanada
Warm up activity What do you know about self-regulated learning?
Who Am I? • Associate professor in Educational Psychology • Co-director of the Technology Integration & Evaluation Research Laboratory • Instructor for ED-D101: Learning strategies for University Success • Research: Regulation in learning
What do I believe learning? • COMMITTED TO EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE • Learning is a lifelong process • Learning involves cognitive work • Learning requires reflection &metacognition • Learning is social • Learning grows from challenges 4
SRL Consortium • “Self-regulation” has been researched since the 1970’s with a focus on classroom practices and learner processes that involve active, strategic learning and engagement in authentic classroom tasks • SRL Canada: Canadian Consortium for Self-Regulated Learning (see http://srlcanada.ca/) includes many internationally renowned researchers working here in BC, with educators across multiple districts: • Nancy Perry (UBC-Vancouver) • Deb Butler (UBC-Vancouver) • Allyson Hadwin (University of Victoria) • Leyton Schnellert (UBC-Okanagan) • Phil Winne (SFU) Slide Prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC)
Examples of SRL Projects in BC Qualities of Elementary Classrooms that Support SRL Developing SRL-Supportive Practices in Intermediate and Secondary Classrooms Tools & Technologies for supporting Self-regulation Co-regulation Shared-regulation Supporting Pre-Service Teachers to Develop SRL-Supportive Practices Teachers in Schools Working Together to Develop SRL-Supportive Practices Supporting learners to adaptively regulate in the face of challenge
Why do I care about Self-regulation? • Brings together critical aspects of motivation, cognition, behavior, and metacognition that are central to learning & engagement • Empowers learners to take control and responsibility of learning (thinking, behaviour, motivation, and emotions) • Tightly connected with 21st century learning and personalized learning • About lifelong learning – this is NOT just for success at school
Lets start with these questions • What is “self-regulation”, and why is fostering self-regulation important? • Where does SRL breakdown? • How can teachers support self-regulation? • How can teachers/schools work together to build practices supportive of self-regulation?
What is “Self-Regulation”? A narrow definition: Self regulation is the ability to respond effectively to various stressors and return to a state of equilibrium A robust and evidence-based classroom definition: Self-regulated learning is goal-directed strategic action that is guided by motivation and metacognition. It is a process of taking control of, and evaluating one’s own learning.
Social process • SRL gradually appropriated • Modelling • Observation • Imitation • Self-control • Instrumental feedback • Metacognitive/motivational prompts • Scaffolding
How do perspectives differ? Developmental Focus Educational Psychology Focus • early years primarily • basic (executive processes) • behaviour & emotion control • atypical development • often situated in research labs & involving non-school tasks • school years & beyond • higher order processes (e.g., metacognition) • Learning in academic tasks as well as social and emotional learning • typical and atypical learners • mainly situated in or oriented to classroom tasks & contexts
WILL Motivation • Genuine interest in learning • Belief that ability is incremental • Focus on personal progress • Willingness to try challenging tasks • View that errors present opportunities to learn • Belief that effort and effective strategy use will lead to success 18
What do I know? What don’t I know? How am I doing? How did I figure that out? SKILL: Metacognition 19
Why is Self-Regulation Important? • Self-regulated learners are successful in and beyond school. • Higher motivation and confidence • Productive thinking skills & strategies(cognition) • Task relevant behaviour • Achievement • All students benefit from instructional contexts that support SRL, including students with exceptional learning needs. I can do it I can do it I can do it I can do it
For Early Success in School • Low levels of self-regulation before school predict academic difficulties in school. • Emotional regulation (coping with frustration, persisting) • Behaviour regulation (following directions, working independently) • Children with poor regulation have problems with behaviour, completing academic tasks, and relating to peers and their teachers. • Performing well on tasks that require self-regulation predicts early school achievement even more powerfully than IQ scores and knowledge of reading and math. • Successful self-regulation in kindergarten predicts achievement through grade 6.
For Success in Middle Years … We need to create environments that are psychologically safe and intellectually challenging—encourage autonomy but provide appropriate levels of support. See J. Eccles & Colleagues writings on the topic stage-environment fit.
For Success in High School… • Learning to take responsibility for their learning and motivation • Preparing for transitions to work or post-secondary where they will need to work and learn independently • Learn to grapple with complex tasks • Experience learning challenges – challenges are opportunities to learn to SRL • Effort appropriately applied not just more effort • Context of tasks – bigger purpose, not just “things the teacher needs to have a grade”
But students may need help with SRL http://youtu.be/O8_fhBNzYNo
What do we need to know to help? • How to help students figure out where in the SRL process things are breaking down • How to design instruction and assessment that creates opportunities for multiple cycles of regulation to unfold • Classroom tasks & contexts • Assessment & feedback processes • Interactions & relationships Next time • Creating safe spaces to make mistakes • Creating opportunities to learn from mistakes and be rewarded for that
Break time – Think pair share • What are 2 ways SRL is implicated in this classroom scenario? • What are some of the strengths and weaknesses you see in terms of self-regulated learning?
Regulation unfolds over phases You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Task Perceptions You need to know what your job REALLY is….and WHY. Conditions→Operations→Products→Evaluations→Standards→ You need to be able to recognize when things are going sideways Monitoring Evaluating Large Scale Adaptation Goals & Plans You need to be able to break things into specific task goals/standards that are challenging but achievable You need to engage, drawing upon a tool kit of strategies to get in there, try it and take some risks Task Enactment Winne & Hadwin (1998)
Problems in planning cannot be fixed with task enactment strategies (study skills) Incomplete or inaccurate Task Perceptions Planning Co Lack of monitoring or inaccurate self-evaluation Failure to adapt or turn challenges into opportunities Goals-Plans without precision or commitment Where we usually intervene Weak strategy choices or no strategy
Students often have inaccurate or incomplete task understandings Why do you have a Midterm test in this class? So I can figure out if I understand and if my studying working while I still have time to fix it So you have something to grade us on? So know what you need to teach us again for the final? ED-D 401 Hadwin
Task Understanding Gr. 2 (Stephanie Helm) Good knowledge test scores Good task understanding Weak but improving test scores Weak task understanding
Developing TU is essential to learning Big Improvement Strong emerging task understanding
Butler’s (2003) findings Based on 100 case studies of post-secondary learners (Butler, 2003) Slide prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC)
But they don’t realize this is the problem Instructor Assessment of Problem Student Assessment of Problem
What can teachers do? • Facilitate task understanding • Don’t do the interpretation for them • Guide them through a process of co-constructing perceptions of tasks and task features • Ask students about tasks • What is your job here? • Why are we doing this? • What do I want you to learn? • How does this relate to what we did last week?
What can teachers do? • Group/Peer discussion • Have students compare task perceptions • Compare plans for completing work • Peer read and discuss drafts • Assess task understanding • Quiz • 2 minute free write • Formal task analysis • Model thinking & how you find TU answers • What am I being asked to do? • How am I being asked to think? • Why are we doing this?
Phase 2: Goal Setting • What are Goals? • What you are aiming to accomplish or learn • Standards for work • Commitment to a particular outcome • Taking what you know about a task (your task understanding) and turning it into a • plan of action • standard to achieve 44
Why are goals important for SRL? • Good goals help you... • Deal with 1 little piece at a time • Know how to get started • Know which strategies to use • Generate feedback on how well you’re doing • Get motivated • Plan & manage your time
Goals play a central role in regulating… • http://youtu.be/9Y9tZy9EXOs
Goal Setting Video – Ian Thorpe • Important for progress • Motivating • Challenging but achievable • Distal to proximal...right down to this training session • Important to reflect on goals • Learn from past goals and experiences 47
Goals become important … • In all tasks and academic work • When choices are made available • When there are multiple ways to demonstrate mastery • Work extends over time (multiple classes) • Student self-evaluation & peer evaluation are promoted Personalized learning contexts
TASC Goals What Are Good Goals in SRL? Good goals for your academic tasks include ALL the following characteristics: • Time(day, time, duration – 2 hours max) • Action(s) (thinking process or ways of thinking) • Standard (to what degree, amount, standard) • Content (what specific course ideas/concepts) 50