Chapter 12 World War I
Underlying (long-term) Causes of World War I 1. Nationalism-One type of nationalism inspired the great powers of Europe to act in their own interests. Another emerged as ethnic minorities within larger nations sought self-government.
“Let Us Have (A) Peace (Piece)” 2. Imperialism- more powerful nations sought to control the economic, political, and social fate of less powerful nations. This led to conflict over territory.
3. Militarism- build up of arms to protect interests around the globe; also to maintain ability to compete with foreign powers Militarism: • similar to the arms race of today • Britain had a great navy, Germany wanted a great navy too • Germany and France competed for larger armies • The more one nation built up its army and navy, the more other nations felt they had to do the same.
4. Alliances- a complicated system of alliances, different groups of European nations had pledged to come to one another’s aid in the event of attack. • Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary) leading up to WWI • changed sides and became a member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia) when the war began. • thought would gain land advantanges
The spark that ignited WWI • immediate cause of The Great War, was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Franz) in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28, 1914. • Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had been visiting Bosnia, a new Austro-Hungarian province. • shot by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Bosnian nationalist(from Serbia) who believed that Austria-Hungary had no right to rule Bosnia.
Eyewitness AccountThe road to maneuvers was shaped like the letter V, making a sharp turn at the bridge over the River Nilgacka. Franz Ferdinand's car could go fast enough until it reached this spot but here it was forced to slow down for the turn. Here Princip had taken his stand. As the car came abreast he stepped forward from the curb, drew his automatic pistol from his coat and fired two shots. The first struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. She was an expectant mother. She died instantly.The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart.He uttered only one word; Sofia - a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly. The officers seized Princip. They beat him over the head with the flat of their swords. They knocked him down; they kicked him, tortured him, and all but killed him. He was then taken to the Sarajevo gaol (jail). Borijove JevticOne of the ConspiratorsSarajevo, 28 June 1914
World War I began in 1914. • The United States remained neutral in order to protect our overseas markets.
Alliances caused the assassination of Francis Ferdinand to lead to world conflict… • Convinced that Serbia was behind the Archduke’s assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. • Russia, as Serbia’s protector, began mobilization, or the readying of troops for war. • France, Russia’s ally, and Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, also began mobilization. • Germany, located between France and Russia, wanted to conquer France quickly to avoid the need to fight on two fronts. To get to France, German forces had to pass through neutral Belgium; the invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the conflict as well. (Schlieffen Plan) • One week after the war started, all the great powers of Europe had been drawn into it.
Allied Powers: France Great Britain Russia (Italy) Central Powers: Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
Stalemate • By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. • When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. • Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Trench warfare
British troops going “over the top” Austrian troops
Trench footcauses: occurs when feet are cold and damp while wearing constricting footwear
Modern Warfare • Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas • Low morale • Line b/t soldiers and civilians began to blur • armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
Section 2 The United States enters The Great War
Causes of American entry into World War I… • To break a stalemate at sea, Germany began to employ U-boats,or submarine. U-boats, traveling under water, could sink British supply ships with no warning. • When the British cut the transatlantic cable, which connected Germany and the United States, only news with a pro-Allied bias was able to reach America. (propaganda) American public opinion was therefore swayed against Germany’s U-boat tactics.
The Sinking of the Lusitania • On May 7,1915, a German U-boat sank the British passenger liner Lusitania. • Since 128 American passengers had been on board, the sinking of the Lusitania brought the United States closer to involvement in the war.
Lusitania NOTICE! Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915.
The Sussex Pledge • More Americans were killed when Germany sank the Sussex, a French passenger steamship, on March 24,1916. • In what came to be known as the Sussex pledge, the German government promised that U-boats would warn ships before attacking, a promise it had made and broken before.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • On January 31, 1917, Germany announced its intent to end the Sussex pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare. • This action caused the United States to break off diplomatic relations with Germany. • Despite this announcement, the German navy did not attack any American ships in February, causing the United States to continue to hope for peace.
The Zimmermann Note • During this time, Britain revealed an intercepted telegram to the government of Mexico from Germany’s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann. • In this telegram, known as the Zimmermann note, Germany offered to return American lands to Mexico if Mexico declared war on the United States. • Neither Mexico nor President Wilson took the Zimmermann note seriously, but it brought America closer to entering the war.
The United States enters WWI • When the Russian Revolution replaced Russia’s autocratic czar with a republican government in March 1917, the United States no longer needed to be concerned about allying itself with an autocratic nation. This removed one more stumbling block to an American declaration of war. • As Germany continued to sink American ships in March, President Wilson’s patience for neutrality wore out. On April 6, 1917, the President signed Congress’s war resolution, officially bringing the United States into the war.
United States lacked a large and available military force. Congress passed a Selective Service Act in May 1917, drafting many young men into the military. • Draftees, volunteers, and National Guardsmen made up what was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), led by General John J. Pershing.
Convoy system • To transport troops across the Atlantic, the United States employed convoys, or groups of unarmed ships surrounded by armed naval vessels equipped to track and destroy submarines. • Due to the convoy system, German submarines did not sink a single ship carrying American troops.
American Soldiers in Europe • By 1918, European nations had begun to run out of men to recruit. Energetic American soldiers, nicknamed doughboys, helped replace the tired fighters of Europe. • Many African Americans volunteered or were drafted for service. However, these men served in segregated units and were often relegated to noncombat roles.
Famous [African American] regiment arrives home. New York's famous 369th Infantry [African American] troops arrive at Hoboken, New Jersey. They are the only regiment which never had one of their men captured and never lost a foot of ground or a trench.
New methods of military transportation, including tanks, airplanes, and German zeppelins, or floating airships, influenced the manner in which the war was fought.
The end of WWI… • The Central Powers collapsed one by one. Austria-Hungary splintered into smaller nations of ethnic groups, and German soldiers mutinied, feeling that defeat was inevitable. • When the Kaiser of Germany fled to Holland, a civilian representative of the new German republic signed an armistice, or cease-fire, in a French railroad car at 5am on November 11, 1918. The armistice went into effect at 11 a.m. on 11/11/1918. • Although guns fell silent six hours later, many more deaths were to follow. The influenza epidemic of 1918 killed more people, both in the United States and Europe, than all of the wartime battles.
Results of WWI • estimated death toll of World War I = 8 million soldiers and civilians including tens of thousands of Americans • Many more lost limbs or were been blinded by poison gas. • efforts of the Red Cross and other agencies had helped save many lives (Half a million Americans died from influenza; 30 million died worldwide.) • Many sensed that the war had destroyed an entire generation of young men and grieved for the loss of their talents and abilities. • In an act of genocide, or organized killing of an entire people, the Ottoman Empire had murdered hundreds of thousands of Armenians suspected of disloyalty to the government. Armenians believe 1.5m of their ancestors were killed
Section 4 Americans on the Home Front
Financing the War • The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to support the Allied cause. • Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort.
The role of the federal government in the economy during WWI • War Industries Board oversaw conversion from commercial to military production. • “Food will win the war,” Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration and, began to manage how much food people bought. • price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government • rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. • Daylight savings time was created to save on fuel use and increase the number of daylight hours available for work.
The Sedition Act Enforcing American Loyalty… Despite Wilson’s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime.
Anti-German propaganda.. • The war spurred hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. • German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular.
African Americans and Other Minorities • With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers began actively recruiting minorities • The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration. Rising industrial output in the North, caused by World War I, began to fuel what became known as the "Great migration." In the course of the "Great Migration," millions of Blacks migrated from the South to Northern cities-- in pursuit of better economic opportunities.
New Roles for Women • diminished male work force created new opportunities for women • Farmers, factory workers, volunteers in jobs with military(secretaries, nurses)
Section 5 Global Peacemaker
President Wilson’s Fourteen Points = plan for peace • Wilson’s Fourteen Points included: called for an end to entangling alliances, a reduction of military forces, the right of Austria-Hungary’s ethnic groups to self-determination • Although both Wilson and the German government assumed that the Fourteen Points would form the basis of peace negotiations, the Allies disagreed. During peace negotiations, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were discarded one by one.
The League of Nations was Wilson’s 14th point. • The League of Nations, was agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. • Republicans in Congress were concerned about Article 10, which contained a provision that might draw the United States into another foreign wars.
The Treaty of Versailles • The Treaty of Versailles redrew the map of Europe to the Allies’ advantage. • Nine new nations were created from territory taken from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany.
Treaty of Versailles • France insisted that Germany be humiliated and financially crippled. • The peace treaty required Germany to: • pay billions of dollars in reparations • reduced the size of the German military • Forfeit part of German territory (industrialized region) • Sign war guilt clause Wilson warned that this action might lead to another war. • On June 28, 1919, the peace treaty, which came to be known as the Versailles Treaty, was signed at Versailles, outside of Paris ****The U.S. never ratified the treaty due to the Senate’s fears that the treaty would draw us into future conflicts. ***Never joined the League of Nations!
Post-war America • The war had given a large boost to the American economy, making the U.S. the world’s largest creditor nation. • Soldiers returned home to a hero’s welcome, but found that jobs were scarce. (women go home!) • African American soldiers, despite their service to their country, returned to find continued discrimination. (Jim Crow laws) • Many American artists entered the postwar years with a sense of gloom and disillusionment.