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1. Chapter 2: Scaling and Measuring Tools and Techniques

2. Learning Objectives • Explain how to measure with precision. • Identify different types of scales. • Identify different types of volume measuring tools. • Describe how to use baking formulas. • Identify different types of thermometers.

3. Measuring with Precision Key Points • Ingredients are purchased and used following one of three measuring conventions: • Measuring by count: Ameasurement of whole items. • Measuring by volume: A measurement of the space occupied by a solid, liquid, or gas. • Measuring by weight: A measurement of the mass, or heaviness, of a solid, liquid, or gas.

4. Scales • Before using any scale, take certain steps to account for the weight of the container. • Beam balance scale • Spring scale • Digital scale • Key Points

5. Volume Measuring Tools • Equipment: • Graduated pitchers/beakers • Measuring cups/spoons • Process: • Liquid: Use smallest measure, place on a level surface, read at eye level. • Dry: Overfill measure, use a straightedge to scrape the excess away. • Key Points

6. Baking Formulas Best Practices • Always read through any formula completely before you start. • When increasing or decreasing a formula, equipment modifications may be necessary. • Once you have read through and evaluated or modified the formula, assemble your equipment and ingredients—the baker’s mise en place.

7. Baking Formulas Standardized Formulas: Key Functions • Suit the specific needs of an individual pastry kitchen or bakeshop. • Establish overall yields, serving sizes, holding and serving practices, and plating information. • Ensure consistent quality and quantity. • Permit pastry chefs and bakers to gauge the efficiency of their work. • Reduce costs by eliminating waste as appropriate.

8. Baking Formulas Standardized Formulas: Recipe Elements

9. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations • Often you will need to modify a formula. Scenarios can include: • Increasing or decreasing the yield. • Adapting a formula from another source to a standardized format. • Adjusting a standardized formula for a special event, such as a banquet or a reception.

10. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations: Formula Conversion Factor (FCF) • (FCF) = Desired yield/Original yield • Converting to a common unit of measure • For some ingredients, straightforward multiplication or division is all that is needed. • To convert for a different number of servings, use the following formula. • Number of servings × Serving size = Total yield • To convert for a different serving size, determine the total original yield of the formula and the total desired yield, and then determine the FCF.

11. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations: Formula Conversion Factor (FCF) • First determine the total original yield of the formula and the total desired yield. • 4 × 2 fl oz = 8 fl oz (total original yield) • 40 × 2 fl oz = 80 fl oz (total desired yield) • Then determine the formula conversion factor. • 80 fl oz/ 8 fl oz= 10 (the formula conversion factor or FCF) • Modify the formula as described above by multiplying formula measures by 10.

12. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations: Volume vs. Weight Measure • For accuracy, most ingredients are measured by weight. • Weight is measured in ounces (oz) • Volume is measured in fluid ounces (fl oz) • Volume does not equal weight • Water is the only exception: 1 fl oz/30 mL (volume) equals 1 oz/28 g (weight).

13. Baking Formulas • The volume measure of another ingredient can be converted into a weight if you know how much a cup of the ingredient (prepared as required by the formula) weighs. • For example, suppose that 1 cup all-purpose flour = 4 ounces. • If a recipe calls for 3 cups of flour, but you only have a scale, use the conversion. • 3 cups x 4 ounces/cup = 12 ounces • Formula Calculations: Volume vs. Weight Measure (cont’d)

14. Baking Formulas The Metric System The U.S. System Units of measurement: Ounces and pounds measure weight Teaspoonsand tablespoons measure fluid ounces Cups, pints, quarts, and gallons measure volume. • Units of measurement: • The gram is the basic unit of weight • The liter is the basic unit of volume • The meter is the basic unit of length • Prefixes added to the basic units indicate larger or smaller units. • Formula Calculations: U.S. and Metric Measures

15. Baking Formulas • To convert ounces and pounds to metric: • Multiply ounces by 28.35 to determine grams. • Divide pounds by 2.2 to determine kilograms. 3 ounces x 28.35 g = 85 g 907 g / 28.35 g = 32 ounces = 2 pounds • Formula Calculations: U.S. and Metric Measures (cont’d)

16. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations • To convert metric grams to ounces or pounds: Divide grams by 28.35 to determine ounces. Divide grams by 454 to determine pounds. • To convert fluid ounces to metric milliliters: Multiply fluid ounces by 30 to determine milliliters. • To convert metric milliliters to fluid ounces: Divide milliliters by 30 to determine fluid ounces.

17. Baking Formulas Formula Calculations (cont’d) • To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: Multiply the degrees Celsius by 9. Divide the result by 5, and add 32 to get the Fahrenheit equivalent. () + 32 = °F • To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: Subtract 32 from the degrees Fahrenheit. Multiply the result by 5, and divide the result by 9 to get the Celsius equivalent. = °C

18. Thermometers • Types: • Instant-read thermometer • Candy thermometer • Stem thermometer • Probe thermometer • To check a thermometer’s accuracy, let it stand for 10 minutes in boiling water. It should read 212°F/100°C. • Key Points