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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation

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Digital Equipment Corporation

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  1. Digital Equipment Corporation Andrej Trebar

  2. August: Ken Olsen and Harlan Anderson found Digital Equipment Corporation and set up shop in an old woolen mill in Maynard, Massachusetts. Laboratory modules were intended to sit on an engineer's workbench or be mounted in a scientist's equipment rack. To simplify the construction of logic systems, the modules were connected by simple cords with banana plugs. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 Laboratory modules The MILL

  3. February:Digital's second product, Systems Modules, goes on the market. July:By the end of its first fiscal year, Digital sells $94,000 worth of laboratory and systems modules and has 60 employees. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 Laboratory modules The MILL

  4. From a Digital technical report dated March 1960: "DEC1500 series memory testers -- complete systems for testing coincident current core memories under simulated computer conditions. DEC memory testers will test planes up to 64 by 64 with several patterns of information quickly and completely in a single operation." The 3000 series Laboratory Modules ran at 500 kHz. The 4000 seriesSystems Modules ran at 1 MHz and were principal components in the PDP-4 and PDP-5. Shown here are the modules in place in a PDP-4. A young hardware engineer named Ben Gurley was hired to design DIGITAL's first computer. Three and a half months later, the prototype Programmed Data Processor-1 (PDP-1) was complete. In December, the prototype was demonstrated at the Eastern Joint Computer Conference in Boston. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 Memory test PDP 1 PDP 4

  5. DIGITAL's 5000 and 6000 series modules were made possible by the arrival of a new series of transistors. This second generation of modules ran at 10 MHz, compared to the first generation modules which ran at 5 MHz. The Logic Handbook was an early project of Barbera Stephenson, the first woman hired as an engineer at DIGITAL. The Logic Handbook was the first in a long series of handbooks that worked both as textbooks and promotional tools. DIGITAL sent them to every customer and handed them out at trade shows. From a technical bulletin on the PDP-1, dated March 1960: "...a compact, solid state general purpose computer with an internal instruction execution rate of 100,000 to 200,000 operations per second. PDP-1 is a single address, single construction, stored program machine with a word length of 18-bits operating in parallel on 1's complement binary numbers." 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 5000 and 6000 Series modules The Logic Handbook PDP 1

  6. The PDP-4 was aimed at applications with not many calculations, but rather the single manipulation of input and output, such as controlling a bakery or fleet of elevators. "As computers [like the PDP-4] become smaller and less expensive," said Bell, "they will take over some special system types...then the computer becomes a 'module' of the system." DECUS evolved because engineers needed a forum to share information and computer programs for DIGITAL's first computer, the PDP-1. Founded on the idea of open exchange of information between user and manufacturer, DECUS has grown to be one of the largest users' groups in the computer industry, with a total membership of about 100,000 and 23 chapters worldwide. The DECUS logo is a stylized version of the PDP-1 "TYPE 30" point scope. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP 4 DECUS

  7. Similar in structure to the PDP-1, the PDP-4 used slower memory and different packaging to achieve a lower price of $65,000. Approximately 54 PDP-4s were sold in application areas as diverse as nuclear physics, production and stock control. The PDP-1 operating system's timesharing ability made interactive access to computers economically viable by allowing various users to share the computer simultaneously. Shown here is the PDP-1 installation at BBN. Bell based the PDP-5 on a 12-bit digital controller (the DC-12) that DIGITAL had designed in 1961 but never built. Bell specified the instruction set in the fall of 1962. Design work was continued by Edson deCastro in early 1963. Shown here is the 7th PDP-5 built. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP-1 Operating system PDP-4 PDP-5

  8. The 8000 series modules, also known as VHF modules, ran at 30 MHz. The modules were used to build high performance systems. The technology developed in the VHF modules was used in the timesharing capabilities of the PDP-6. Shown here is a PDP-6 during testing. The PDP-5 was innovative in replacing the radial structure of earlier designs with an I/O bus. By allowing peripheral equipment to be added incrementally -- rather than preallocating space, wiring and cable drivers -- the I/O bus design lowered the base costs of the system and simplified the configuring of machines in the field. In March, DIGITAL opened its first European sales and service office with three people in Munich, Germany. At the same time, the first Canadian sales office opened with two people in Ottawa. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP-6 Service engineers PDP-5

  9. PDP-6 Tops 10 Flip Chip modules were built of discrete transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors. The series was designed so that backplanes could be wire-wrapped automatically, reducing costs and increasing production line throughput. Flip Chips became the basis for the PDP-8. Tops 10 was developed from a 6-K word monitor for the PDP-6. It included user files and I/O device independence, a command control program and multiprocessing capabilities. Here an operator programs a PDP-6 using papertape. A successor to the PDP-4, the PDP-7 used smaller, more conventional system units and was well received in laboratory and data acquisition applications. The machine featured DIGITAL's first mass-storage based operating system (DECsys for DECtape). Ultimately, 120 PDP-7s were produced and sold. By 1971, Digital was the largest consumer of magnetic core memories other than IBM. Digital built its own magnetic core manufacturing business and by the mid-1970s was producing 30 billion magnetic cores per year. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 Flip Chip Magnetic Core memory PDP-7

  10. The PDP-7A, a second version of the PDP-7, used the newly annouced R series Flip Chip modules. The machine pictured was built for Concord Control Corporation. PDP-8 SpecificationsWord Length: 12 BitsSpeed: 1.5 micro- second cycle timePrimary memory: 4K 12-bit word core memorySecondary memory: 32K maximumInstruction set: 3-bit op code, 1 indirect bit; 8 bits of addressInput/Output: teletype (ASR-33) includes paper-tape reader and punchPower: 780 wattsPrice: $18,000 The PDP-6 was operated and programmed from Boston using a 12,000 mile, 5 hole telex code. It proved very difficult to generate a control C in 5 hole code. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP-6 Remote operation PDP-7A PDP-8

  11. The PDP-9 featured a speed increase of approximately twice that of the PDP-7. The PDP-9 was also one of the first small or medium scale computers to have a keyboard monitor system based on DIGITAL's own small magnetic tape units (DECtape). The size of a file-cabinet drawer, the PDP-8/S model's cost reduction came from implementing the PDP-8 instruction set serially. The LINC-8 was based on a previous design from Lincoln Labs to penetrate the emerging biomedical computer market. The computer incorporated both the LINC (Laboratory Instrument Computer) processor and the PDP-8 processor unit. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP-9 PDP-8/S LINC-8

  12. The 36-bit PDP-10 was program-compatible with the PDP-6 and approximately twice as powerful. Designed to perform conversational timesharing, batch-processing and real-time operations equally well and simultaneously, the PDP-10 achieved great popularity with the commercial timesharing utilities, university computer centers and research laboratories. The new, noise-immune K series Flip Chip module line was used for control applications in industrial computers. By 1975, DIGITAL produced approximately 200 different types of K series modules. M series modules were used in the first redesign of the PDP-8, called the PDP-8/I, and were used in the first PDP-11 (PDP-11/20), the second PDP-10 processor (KI10) and the PDP-8/E. M series modules were DIGITAL's first logic cards to use integrated circuits. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 K series Flip Chip M series modules PDP-10

  13. The PDP-8/I was more expandable (and expensive) than the PDP-8/S. Introduced at the same time was the PDP-8/L, a smaller OEM version of the 8/I. (The PDP-8/I is pictured.) PDP-8 based EDUsystems, using the BASIC language developed at Dartmouth College, brought computers into elementary and secondary schools. EDUsystems were designed to start small and expand as the school's computing requirements increased. The TYPESET-8 hardware and software package originally sold with the classic PDP-8 as its CPU and functioned as a computerized typesetting system for use in hot metal and photo composition typesetting. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 EDU systems PDP-8/I TYPESET-8

  14. The PDP-14: K series modules were used to develop noise-immune I/O units for this completely new, solid state controller that controlled operations by solving Boolean equations. Applications in the relay-logic marketplace included an automatic racking and stacking system, control of machine tools and sequencing. The PDP-12 was used in applications such as chemistry, applied psychology, patient monitoring and industrial testing. The machine incorporated the PDP-8/I and LINC-8 instruction sets, making it compatible with LINC-8 software. In addition to a display-based operating system, software packages were included for data acquisition and display, Fourier analysis and spectrometry. The PDP-15 was DIGITAL's last 18-bit computer system and the only one implemented with integrated circuits. The new machine was faster and less expensive than its predecessors and had the added sophistication of a separate I/O processor Tothe CPU. Over 400 of these machines were ordered in the first eight months of production. 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 PDP-12 PDP-14 PDP-15

  15. Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis

  16. 1970 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis PDP-8/E PDP-11/20 VT 05

  17. 1971 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis CSI PDP-11/45 RSTS11

  18. 1972 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis PDP-11/40 PDP-11/05

  19. 1973 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis DEC Data Communications Message Protocol RSX-11D RT-11

  20. 1974 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis LA 36 DECwriter II MPS DEC LSI microporcessor RSX-11M

  21. 1975 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX 11/780 commitee LSI-11 PDP 11/34 VT52

  22. 1976 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis WPS-8 DECSYSTEM-20

  23. 1977 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis DEC- STATION PDP-11/60 VAX11/780

  24. 1978 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VMS 1.0 VT-100

  25. 1979 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis LSI 11 PDP-11/23 PDP-11/44

  26. 1980 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis DECnet ETHERNET VAX11-750

  27. 1981 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis PDP 11-24 VT125 DECmate

  28. 1982 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Prof 300 VAX11-730 ALL in 1

  29. 1983 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 LSI-11/73 J-11 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX cluster SW delivery

  30. 1984 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX 8600 VAX11/785 VAX station

  31. 1985 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX Chip set Micro VAXII PDP 11/83

  32. 1986 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX 8800 Firewall VAXmate

  33. 1987 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX Station 2000 Micro VAX 3600 VAX 8974

  34. 1988 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Digital Storage System Interconnect VAX 6200 VMS5.0 CVAX

  35. 1989 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis DEC Station 3100 Rigel Chip set VAX 6300 VAX 9000

  36. 1990 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis PDP 11/93 11/94 VAXft 3000 VAX 6500

  37. 1991 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis VAX 6600 Digital Microsoft EZ51

  38. 1992 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Alpha family VAX 7000 DEC pclp Aplha

  39. 1993 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Windows NT for Alpha Services www Storage works

  40. 1994 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Digital 2100 ASP server Alpha 21164 Celebris Venturis

  41. 1995 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Alpha server 8400 DEC Switch 900 Digital & Microsoft Altavista

  42. 1996 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis Prioris ZX5133MP server SA110 StrongARM Prioris HX6000

  43. 1997 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis 9GB Disk drive Customer support Milicent

  44. 1998 Revenues US $Millions 16,000 12,000 CAGR 1974-1981 37% CAGR 1981-1989 20% CAGR 1989-1997: 3% 8,000 Apple II introduced: 1977 Compaq buys DEC:1998 4,000 IBM PC introduced:1981 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Vir: Fortune 500 Database, www.fortune.com; Innosight analysis