REMEMBERING 2O10’S FLOODS Heavy rainfall sets records and causes flooding disasters around the world Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE REGIONAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED IN THE NORMAL WATER CYCLE • EROSION • SCOUR • MUDFLOWS
CAUSES OF RISK LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER FLOODS WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) CASE HISTORIES EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER
HAZARD MAPS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREVENTION/MITIGATION • PREPAREDNESS • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION RISK ASSESSMENT POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK FLOOD DISASTER RISK REDUCTION DATA BASES AND INFORMATION COMMUNITY HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
2010’S “FLOOD LABORATORIES” • PORTUGAL (MADEIRA) • RUSSIA (SIBERIA, KAZAKHSTAN) • USA (NORTH DAKOTA, MINNESOTA, TENNESSEE, CALIFORNIA, …)
2010’S “FLOOD LABORATORIES” • BRAZIL • POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, … • CHINA—NORTH KOREA • PAKISTAN • NEW SOUTH WALES (AUSTRALIA)
IMPACTED NATIONS … Madeira (Portugal), Russia, USA (North Dakota, Minnesota, Tennessee), Brazil, Poland, Hungary, Germany, Czech Republic, China , Pakistan, North Korea, New South Wales, Australia, California, …
Millions evacuated. Millions of homes inundated, left without power, damaged or destroyed. Landslides (Rock falls, Mudflows) triggered by heavy, prolonged rainfall. Lives and livelihoods of millions adversely affected. Millions at risk from water-borne diseases SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010
Homes and Infrastructure damaged or destroyed. Health care needs related to water-borne diseases increase sharply. $Tens of billions in insured and uninsured economic losses. Thousands killed in flood-related disasters SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 (Continued)
FLASH FLOODS TRIGGER MUDSLIDES IN THE MADEIRA ISLANDS, PORTUGAL AT LEAST 42 DEAD FEBRUARY 20-21, 2010
WHAT HAPPENED?The worst storm to hit Madeira since 1993 lashed the south of the Atlantic Ocean island, including the capital, Funchal, Saturday, turning some streets into torrents of mud, water and debris.
WHAT HAPPENED (continued)The flash floods were so powerful they carved paths down mountains and ripped through the city, churning under some bridges and tearing others down.
FLOODS IN RUSSIA SPRING RUNOFF AFTER A HARSH WINTER INCREASES FLOOD RISKS ACROSS RUSSIA MARCH 2010
The Ob River, the country's fourth longest river and the longest estuary in the world, is a major river in western Siberia.
The Yenisei River, which drains a large portion of central Siberia, is the greatest river system flowing northward to the Arctic Ocean.
The Lena River is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Yenisei river) is the 10th longest river in the world.
Weather reports warned of "catastrophic" flooding in Siberia, where river ice was up to several meters thick, and rivers flowing northward routinely surge with melting water.
NORTH DAKOTA-MINNESOTA EXPERIENCE A NEAR-RECORD FLOOD DISASTER AGAIN 2009’S RECORD FLOOD STAGE APPROACHED, BUT UNBROKEN MARCH 15 - 30, 2010
REASONS FOR FLOODING THE ANNUAL FLOODING THREAT TO FARGO, ND AND MOORHEAD, MN IS TRIGGERED BY: 1) The Spring melt and runoff , AFTER 2) A severe Winter.
SCIENTIFIC REASONS FOR RECURRING FLOOD DISASTERS IN THE AREA Synchrony of river discharge with Spring runoff Ice jams
SCIENTIFIC REASONS FOR RECURRING FLOOD DISASTERS IN THE AREA Lake Agassiz, a glacial lake, is the floodplain of the Red River A sharp decrease in river gradient makes the Fargo-Moorhead area act like a large lake.
REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS PLAN A 10-YEAR, $1.3 BILLION FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT A 60 KM (36-MILE) – LONG NEW RIVER CHANNEL IS EXPECTED TO SOLVE THE RECURRING THREAT
FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES PARALYZE BRAZIL WORST IN 50 YEARS APRIL 7, 2010
10,000 homes, mostly in the slums where one-fifth of Rio's people live in shacks that are vulnerable to heavy rains, were also severely impacted by mudslides
RECORD FLOODING IN NASHVILLE, TN AREA MAY 1-4, 2010
Flooding after 2 days of intense rain left the city of Nashville and the surrounding area with a record 33 cm (13 in) of water in two days.
The Cumberland River crested Monday afternoon, May 3rd, at 3 ½ m above flood stage.
The flash floods caught the city off-guard, and thousands of residents and tourists were forced to flee homes and hotels as the Cumberland river rapidly spilled over its banks
The Impacts:150 roads impassableOpryland and other hotels evacuatedBusiness interruptionSchools and universities closedFuel shortagesWater shortagesOver $1 billion economic loss.
RIVERS BURST BANKS AND BREACH DAMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AFTER WEEKS OF RAIN POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, … MAY – JUNE, 2010
The heaviest rains in over a decade forced thousands along rain swollen rivers in Poland, Germany, and Hungary to evacuate from their homes, breached dikes and sand bag dams, and caused damage to homes, and infrastructure estimated at over $2.5 billion.