Chapter 12 The Industrial Revolution: The Transformation of Society • The last part of the 18 Century (late 1700s) Through the 19th Century (1800s) • French Revolution (liberty and equality) • Industrial Revolution (England, Europe and The USA)
The industrial revolution has now (21st century) reached all parts of the world. • Substitution of machines for humans. • The power of steam replaced the strength of animals and humans. • ‘Management science’ found new ways to organize production by workers in factories. • Items were produced much faster and in greater quantity. Where did management science come from? How has this substitution of machines for people affected the members of your community?
Can you draw any parallels between the pace of change during the, • Industrial Revolution in England • Economic Revolution that has been occurring in China • Information Revolution that has been sweeping the Globe • Downturn in economy in many western nations What is it that is different about the social/political and economic realities of the East and West that might explain why one is growing so quickly and the other is having difficulty getting out of a recession?
Industrial Revolution + 200 years – Information Age The west has been through the stage of inexpensive labour, increased social and political influence of the middle and lower classes, increased pressure to manage the environment, greater access to public education and healthcare, employment equity, minimum wages, indexed pensions in the private and public sector, etc. All of these things are very expensive and the people are not willing to give them up. The East does not have the same overhead expenses as the West.
How long will it take before China has some of these expenses? How will that effect the economy? How will that affect peoples priorities?
Britain’s advantage • Large accessible supplies of coal and iron • Long tradition of mining and metallurgy • Transportation • Natural waterways and man made canals • Privately financed toll roads (turnpikes) were built for profit • Harbours and docks to unload goods • Capital investment was available to build factories. • wealthy landowners, merchants, slave traders • Interest rates were low and entrepreneurs borrowed
Industry sold to, • Britain’s new middle class • Overseas colonies traded sold materials to Britain who in turn sold manufactured goods to the colonies and other European countries • Cotton from the USA helped to textile industry to grow quickly. Cultural Traditions that gave Europe an advantage in innovation and use of new technology included, • Individualism (to pursue success based on ones ability and creativity). • Rational Understanding and Control of Nature.
The Enclosure Movement As we discuss the Enclosure Movement, think about how it affected the following people. • Small (subsistence) farmers • Large landowners • Capitalists and entrepreneurs • Landless people in the countryside (squatters) • The general health of the people of Britain
Enclosure Movement • Prior to the enclosure movement, much of the land could be used communally and was known as the open-field system. • Enclosure in the 18th Century was the movement to change from farming in long narrow strips to larger compact blocks.
Result: greater efficiency, saved time, avoided the waste of land between strips. • The argument: Increase productivity and profit. • New larger farming machinery could be used (seed drill) • Experimental methods such as four-field crop rotation • Neither of these would have been possible in the open communal field system with long narrow strips
Enclosure movement (continued) • Increasing harvest yields was more important with the steady growth in population • The war with France (Napoleon) after 1793 disrupted food imports. • Rising prices and the opportunity to increase profits encouraged the movement towards enclosure (entrepreneurialism).
Enclosure movement (continued) • On some estates landowners were able to get the tenants to agree to exchange strips for a compact enclosed farm. If this was not possible, enclosure could be forced by a special Act of Parliament for the price of £6,000. • Special meetings had to be called, with notice being posted on the church door for three successive Sundays, often leading to riots. Why?
Larger landowners had more ‘votes’. It was possible for a small number of landowners in a village to force enclosure on the majority who owned less land. • The petition to enclose was considered by Parliamentary committee in London. Most small landowners could not afford to travel to the committee meeting and therefore were not able to prevent the enclosure. Is there a modern example that has eliminated access?
Enclosure movement (continued) • After an Enclosure Act had been passed, three Parliamentary commissioners were sent to divide the land between those with legal right to it, and settle any disagreement over ownership. • Between 1760 and 1815 nearly 3,300 individual Acts were passed
In 1801 a General Enclosure Act enabled thousands of enclosures to take place. • The Enclosure Acts applied to about 2 million ha/4.5 million acres, or a quarter of England. • Some 7 million ha/17 million acres were enclosed without any parliamentary act (Voluntary). • Duress?
Enclosure movement (continued) • Some believe that enclosure harmed the poor and turned the smallholders into landless labourers, or drove them off the land altogether. • However, others believe that many farmers gained from enclosure. • The more enterprising were able to develop their property, cut costs, introduce improved farming methods, and increase yields and profits.
Original holdings (farms) were often increased as smaller unprofitable farms were sold. • For the landless, regular labouring work was available. • The increase in food quality and productivity improved the health of the population, particularly those who lived in the towns and cities.
Enclosure movement (continued) • Those who had held land by custom (unable to provide legal documentation) lost their land. • Others that were displaced, included squatters who had lived on the edges of the commons and cultivated small plots. • Traditional access to the common land for firewood, fruit, nuts, and pig fodder was also lost.
Other landowners who were unable to afford their share of the legal costs of an Enclosure Act or the cost to build a fence either sold or left their land. • Small farms often found it hard to compete with the larger, more profitable holdings and were also forced to sell up. • Economic hardship was far less than used to be thought. • Far greater was the social dislocation caused by enclosure, the loss of the former communal, mutually-supportive way of life, and its replacement by capitalist farming.
Those groups forced to move squatters, smallholders migrated to the newly forming cities of the Industrial Revolution. • There was a steady supply of rural migrants requiring work, and the new factories were able to offer it. • Without the push of enclosure on the rural population, the supply of labour to the factories and mills of the Industrial Revolution would possibly have been less sizeable.
Enclosure brought British farming into the capitalist age, and led to increased production as the inefficiencies of the open-field system and common lands were ended. • Food production and profits increased the nation's wealth and enabled the growing population of the mid-18th century onwards to be fed.
The people in the cities could be supplied with cheap and plentiful food, so the cities could continue to grow as more workers found jobs in factories. • The Industrial Revolution and enclosure were linked processes in the modernization of the UK.
Cotton Britain had been the leader in the wool trade. • Production increased 10 times between 1760-1785. • And again, by 10 times between 1785-1825. Spinners took the raw wool from the sheep and made threads from it. Weavers used the threads to produce cloth which is then sold to people who make finished goods such as clothing, blankets, etc.)
Inventions The Flying Shuttle (1733) enabled weavers to produce cloth faster than spinners could spin the thread. For 35 years there was a shortage of thread, until... The Spinning Jenny powered by the human operator (1768) and 5 years later (1773), the Spinning Mule was invented which was powered by animal or water energy.
Fabric could now be produced faster than the threads, resulting in ‘production bottlenecks’. The Power Loom was invented in 1785, making weaving even faster. The goal was to now speed up the spinning of wool and cotton to meet the demand for cloth.
The Cotton Gin (invented in the USA 1793) removed seeds from raw cotton. • Cotton farmers and plantation owners now devoted more land to growing cotton. • More labour was required in the fields and less in processing the cotton. • Slaves were in high demand (a human tragedy/crime against humanity). What was Napoleon busy doing at this time? He was trying to stop Britain from trading with the rest of the world and becoming more prosperous.
Location, location, location Water power drove these machines so the factories needed to be located near fast flowing streams and rivers. • Towns and cities grew up around factories which were located near rivers and streams. • People lived near their employer. They did not commute like today.
The Steam Engine (1760) was powered by coal or wood and could be located anywhere. • A few simple tasks were only were required to operate a steam engine which made it saw industrialization now employing more women and children. • Steam engines built of wrought iron were used to pump water out of mines, allowing more access to richer mineral finds deeper in the ground. • Machines with more power (resistance) needed to be built of stronger materials.
The Iron Industry • By 1780 ‘wrought iron’ was the most widely used metal until 1860 when steel began to be produced. • In 1856 the process of efficiently removing impurities from iron made steel an inexpensive alternative.
Society Transformed Agricultural, business and technology had gone through their own revolution. Traditional life in the countryside, small villages and farms was being replaced by urban (city) life. Half of the population of England was living in cities (urban) by 1850, while Europe remained mostly rural (small towns, villages and farms).
Cities grew quickly • Industrialization required people in the cities. • The Enclosure Movement and Industrialization left little work outside of the cities. • Cities grew without much thinking about urban planning, leading to • Sanitation problems and disease • No lighting and unsafe (theft / violence) street at night • Substandard housing • Pollution in residential neighborhoods • Poor transportation
All people suffered from the lack of planning, especially the poor working class • Ugly neighborhoods near factories • Families living in cramped conditions (lack of privacy) • Disease (open sewers) • Crime, immorality, desperation • Infant mortality 26/100 died before age 5
Changes in Social Structure The industrial revolution made possible, common men to rise up and compete economically. Gone forever was the old division of society in clergy, nobility and commoners. Bourgeois included bankers, factory and mine owners and merchants. Middle class included doctors, lawyers, shop keepers.
What was previously considered to be virtue was now taken to an extreme in the form of materialism, selfishness and indifference for those in suffering. Do you see any parallels with the transformation of China in the 21st Century? By the 19th Century, bourgeois politicians shared authority with the remaining aristocrats, who now had to compete for social and political power.
Differences among the working classes Tension existed between the middle class and the Proletariat, who consisted of, • Rural labourers • Miners • City workers • Artisans (construction, printing, tailoring, food preparation and processing, crafts and furniture production, jewelry, etc.) • factory workers • Servants
Artisans who had previously been able to make room for their children to join their professions, were finding it difficult to compete with cheap manufactured goods. • Their way of life was changing. • Quality of life for other working class groups was a different kind of struggle • Driven from their land, into cities in search of work, often leaving families behind • Normal working days were as much as 15 hours
Factory work was boring and dangerous • Health and safety standards did not exist for factory workers’ protection. • Mining especially, was hazardous (poison gas, cave-ins, explosions, physical injuries, lung damage). • Employers could fire or layoff for any reason, including accidents on the job. • If housing was included with the job, it was lost when the job was lost.
The Pub • Drinking and gaming was the social activity. • Sunday was the one day off each week. • ‘Holy Monday’ described the absenteeism caused by alcohol abuse on Sundays. • Class differences became even greater. • Poverty increased as the cities grew.
The Big Question If machines could produce so much wealth and so many products, then why were there so man poor and suffering children and adults?
Social Reform 1800s Differing degrees of democracy have existed throughout history. Britain was the freest state in Europe, it was far from democratic. The King had many limits on his power. Aristocrats still had much power, based on land ownership and access to cheap labour. Aristocrats controlled the two houses of parliament. The majority of people from the middle class could not yet vote. Corruption within city governments was the norm.
Reforms • Sons of Nobles had to get a career. • The wealthiest business men bought titles for themselves, land and husbands for their daughters. • Government, courts and the Anglican church were dominated by aristocrats. • Reforms of 1828 included allowing certain additional Christians to be employed by the government. • 1833 Catholics were permitted to sit in Parliament.
Reforms • 1833 Slavery was ended throughout the British Empire. • 1835 towns and cities were granted more authority to manage the affairs. LOCAL GOVERNMENT is considered to be more representative. • Problems of urbanization could now be solved locally. • Public Health Act 1848 (Sanitation for the Nation). • Suffrage (THE RIGHT TO VOTE) middle class and working men hoped to get the vote.
Start 1-5 • Representation in the House of Commons had not been adjusted as the population shifted to cities. • Voting was not by secret ballot – intimidation and coercion existed. • Powerful and wealthy men often controlled several elected politicians and influence nationally This was a systemic problem maintained the power structure in favour of the aristocrats and wealthy.
Political Structure House of Commons created laws Politicians were elected House of Lords gave approval to the laws Members were appointed by the King
1832 House of Commons passed a Bill to extend suffrage (the right to vote) to 200,000 more men, doubling the number. House of Lords refused to pass the Bill. People were preparing to riot and it appeared potentially revolutionary. The King threatened the House of Lords by proposing to add additional members from among the bill’s supporters. The Bill was passed.
Political boundaries were adjusted to give more seats in the House of Commons to the populated cities. • Although 200,000 more men could vote, there were property qualification which restricted the working poor (factory workers) from participating.
1833 – The Factory Act Children under the age of 13 could not work more than 9 hours a day. Children between the ages of 13 – 18 could not work more than 69 hours a week. Children under age 10 were no longer permitted to work in the mines. 1847. Boys under age 18 and women could not work more than 10 hours a day in factories. Inspectors were employed to investigate infractions and punish offenders of these new laws. 1874. The 10 hour day (maximum) was enacted for adult male workers.
Questions Do you think that workers were pleased with these new laws? No. It reduced the family income. Do you think the inspectors had much power? Likely not, because the people they were protecting did not have much of a voice for themselves. They had more to lose by standing against powerful business owners.
Chartist Reforms Efforts (1830s) Definition of Chart: 1. a sheet exhibiting information in tabular form. 2. a graphic representation, as by curves, of a dependent variable, as temperature, price, etc.; graph. 3. a map, especially a hydrographic or marine map. 4. an outline map showing special conditions or facts: a weather chart. Chartists were people who had a plan to improve the political equality in England. They believed that economic equality would follow from political equality.
Start 12-16 Chartists were intellectual radicals and workers. They wanted, • The vote for all men (universal manhood suffrage). Why not for women too? • The secret ballot. Why? • To eliminate property requirements for members of Parliament. Why? • Salaries / salaries for members of Parliament. Why? • Annual meetings of Parliament. Why? By 1850 all of their demands were met, with the exception of annual elections of Parliamentarians.