Readings: Smith, et al., 904-913, 972-973, 1012-1014, 1045-1048 –NOTE FULL VERSION IS ON TITANIUM-PROPRIETARY SLIDES REMOVED FROM THIS GROUP Consequences of the War in the 20th and 21st Centuries
Versailles Treaty • Really five separate treaties but can think of them as Versailles Treaty • Two approaches: • Woodrow Wilson • Georges Clemenceau (French Premier)
Woodrow Wilson’s Approach • Fourteen Points • Guide to future peace • Open covenants of peace; openly arrived at • “National Self-Determination” • League of Nations • “The Peace to End All War”
Georges Clemenceau’s Approach • Punish Germany • Blamed Germany for the war • Disarm Germany • Demilitarize the Rhineland • Create buffer states in Eastern Europe • Make Germany pay for the war (“war reparations”)
Results of the Versailles Conference • Wilson got the League of Nations (but neither Germany nor USSR were in it)—US Senate vetoed entire Versailles Treaty. • Punish Germany: • Germany blamed for war • No Army • Alsace-Lorraine to France • Rhineland demilitarized • No Armaments Industry • Germany pays for War and Reparations (5 billion +)
National Self-Determination • Eastern Europe • Austria-Hungary is dismantled • Austria becomes small country • Czechoslovakia • Yugoslavia • Poland • Treaty of Trianon • Hungary becomes a very small state, losing much territory and a majority of the Hungarians • Romania (including large populations of Hungarians)
Middle East After Settlements • British Role: • Arab Revolts (Lawrence of Arabia) • Balfour Declaration • French Role: • Got Involved in Palestinian struggles to prevent British from getting all Middle East as new colonies
Treaty of Sevres, August 10, 1920 • Mandates (another name for colonies to please President Wilson) • Jordon—mandate to British • Palestine—to British • Syria and Lebanon—French • Hijaz (Arab) independent
Kuwait, 1991 Burning oil fields, set ablaze by retreating Iraqis, provide an eerie backdrop to motorized U.S. troops participating in Operation Desert Storm, the high point of the Bush, Sr’s, presidency.
Colin Powell and WMD In February 2003 U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell went before the UN General Assembly to convince the international community that Saddam Hussein was concealing chemical and biological weapons, and to request the approval of the Security Council to commence military action against Iraq. Here he holds up a vial of anthrax, a life threatening infectious disease reputed to be in the terrorist arsenal.
Consequences of “Peace to End All War” • World War II • Arab-Israeli Conflict • Iraq-Iran War • Persian Gulf War • Bosnia, Kosovo, Serbian crisis • Al Queda – 9/11 • Iraq War - 2003
Other Consequences • Ho Chi Minh – Vietnam War • May 4th Movement – Chinese Communism