A House Divided Disruption and Decline (1305-1517)
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • Middle Ages: Nations of Europe bound to two great universal powers—empire and church. • Emerging national consciousness consolidated respective lands in common traditions, language, centralized government & naturally defensible borders.
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • 3 most powerful monarchies evolved similarly, solidified by end of 15th c. • England—1485 • France—1491 • Spain—1492 • Kings took roles of emperors and sought to control the church in their territories.
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • England • 1351—Statute of Provisors—denied papacy right to fill English sees • 1353—Statute of Praemunire—forbade appeals to courts of Rome • 1366—parliament declared king could not give kingdom to pope as a fief.
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • France • King Philip levied taxes on French clergy for ½ annual income • 1296 Pope Boniface VIII replied with Clericis Laicos—forbade clergy to pay taxes to secular powers
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • Boniface 1302—Unam Sanctam, most extravagant claim to temporal sovereignty of Middle Ages • Christ (king & priest) gave two keys & two swords to Peter • “We therefore declare, say, and affirm that submission on the part of every person to the bishop of Rome is altogether necessary for salvation.”
B. The Nationalist Movement • 1. The Clash Between Church and Crown • Philip—summoned an assembly which condemned Boniface and called for a general council to try him for heresy and immorality. • Boniface--prepared bull of excommunication. • Philip had Boniface captured and tortured. • Boniface freed, but died month later
B. The Nationalist Movement • 2. The Babylonian Captivity • Benedict XI (Boniface’s successor) died soon under mysterious circumstances • Clement V chosen 11 months later—elected by cardinals at Rome, but crowned at Lyon and never returned to Italy. • 1309 seat of papacy moved to Avignon • Avignon the city of papacy for almost 70 years, hence, Babylonian Captivity
B. The Nationalist Movement • 2. The Babylonian Captivity • Clement V led papacy in becoming a French institution • All 7 Avignon popes were French • Clement assisted Philip in using the Inquisition as a tool of the state; tried the Knights Templars in France for heresy; executed 69 of them.
B. The Nationalist Movement • 2. The Babylonian Captivity • Church continued to decline morally and general unrest abounded. • Many clergy practiced pluralism (holding two paying offices at once) and absenteeism (not living in the post from which income came). • Urban V went to Rome 1367; returned in less than 3 years. • Gregory XI moved back in 1377.
B. The Nationalist Movement • 3. The Papal Schism • Began soon after death of Gregory XI 1378 • French cardinals elected Urban VI under pressure, soon became unhappy with choice, and returned to Avignon • In Avignon they elected Clement VII, a prince related to the king of France • Urban appointed a new group of cardinals
B. The Nationalist Movement • 3. The Papal Schism • Nations forced to decide between • Avignon—Spain, France, Scotland, part of Germany • Rome—Italy, most of Germany, Scandinavia, Bohemia, Poland, Flanders and Portugal
B. The Nationalist Movement • 3. The Papal Schism • When Urban VI died, another Roman chosen • Clement VII continued in Avignon 16 yrs. • Clement succeeded by Benedict XIII, who served for 23 years
B. The Nationalist Movement • 3. The Papal Schism • Many efforts to get both popes to resign and elect a new • Both eventually agreed, but neither followed through • 1409 cardinals from both Rome and Avignon met in a council at Pisa—deposed both and elected a new
B. The Nationalist Movement • 3. The Papal Schism • To Pisa’s surprise, neither pope would recognize their action • Thus 3 popes ruled concurrently, each supported by the different states of Europe • Intolerable situation created an uproar among intellectuals and grass roots populace
C. The Conciliar Movement • Nicaea 325 1st ecumenical • Acts 15 the precedent? • Council of Pisa the forerunner • But was not summoned by a pope • Widened schism rather than healing • An authoritative council would need to be convened by both a pope and an emperor
C. The Conciliar Movement • 1. The Council of Constance • John XXIII & Emperor Sigismund managed a dual summons • Constance 1414-1418—RCC 16th official c. • Purposes: • End papal schism • Reform church • Deal with various heresies
C. The Conciliar Movement • At outset c. called fro abdication of all 3 popes • Without a pope Emperor Sigismund forced its continunace • C. issued “Articles of Constance”—declared a c. derived its authority directly from God and everyone, even the pope, had to obey its decisions.
C. The Conciliar Movement • Imp. of rise of nationalism clearly manifested at Constance. • With problems at the beg., the c. changed the vote from personal vote to vote by nations. • Deputies from 5 nations joined with the cardinals in electing Pope Martin V.
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • Declaring itself the supreme governing body, Constance had changed the papacy from an absolute to a constitutional monarchy. • Didn’t last long, but set a precedent for Vatican II
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • Constance called for a council in 5 yr, another in 7, and one every 10 “forever after” • Martin V called a c. in 1423 at Pavia, but was terminated by plague • 7 yr later called Council of Basel
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • New Pope Eugenius IV ordered the c. dissolved, but Emperor Sigismund ordered it to continue • Eugenius was forced to flee Rome • Papal prestige dealt a new blow by Nicholas of Cusa & Lorenzo Valla—demonstrated Donation of Constantine to be a forgery
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • Nicholas of Cusa gave strong support for conciliar authority over papal authority— • Pope just one member of the church • Church (not pope) infallible and can transfer that infallibility to a general c. • C. superior to a pope and could despose him
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • Armed with antipapal support Basel made sweeping declarations— • Abolishing man papal sources of revenue • Filling high posts by election, not papal • Regulating age & number of cardinals • Claiming right to grant indulgences. • Basel had gone too far & many supporters began to swing back
C. The Conciliar Movement • 2. The Council of Basel • C. deposed Eugenius as a heretic and elected Felix V in his place; Eugenius refused to step down. • 1448 c. driven from Basel to Lausanne where Felix abdicated. • Shortly after Eugenius died and was followed by Nicholas V. • C. recognized Nicholas; conciliar movement effectively ended.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • Other purposes of the councils- • Attempt reform within church • Weak and ineffective • Deal with heresy and dissent • Severe and definitive • Church was being further divided by deep theological and moral issues. • Forerunners of Protestant Reformation desperately trying to save it.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 1. John Wycliffe (1328-84) • “The Morning Star of the Reformation” • Friend of John of Gaunt • Supported British crown in dispute with pope over ownership and stewardship of property. • 1375—On Divine Lordship • 1376—On Civil Lorship
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • Righteous Stewardship • Everything belongs to God • Every creature is His servant • No man has permanent or unlimited lordship • Lordship is by the grace of God • If any person, esp. a priest, is immoral or unfit, should be replaced • Kings & princes servants too, replaced if unfit
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • During scandal of papal schism, W. argued the true Church invisible— • Salvation does not depend on membership in visible church or mediation by priest—upon election by God • Everyone truly elected of God a priest • But, true and pure priests should be honored • Condemned cult of saints, relics, pilgrimages
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • Transubstantiation— • Rejected in favor of remanence (Christ is in the sacrament, along with bread & wine, just as king is everywhere present in his kingdom) • In this, though he appealed to Ambrose, Augustine, Anselm, Nicholas II, cause many of his friends to reject him.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • Repudiated indulgences & masses for the dead; believed in purgatory • Bible should be available for all men to read; translated from Vulgate to English vernacular • To distribute Bibles and preach, sent out traveling preachers (Lollards=“mumblers”) • Peasant’s Revolt 1381 blamed on Lollards
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 1. John Wycliffe (1328-84) • Though some of W’s teachings created a stir and some condemned, he remained a devout Catholic and died in peace, 1384. • 1401 strong act against heretics, aimed at Lollards. • 1406 clear anti-Lollard measure. • 1407 Archbishop of Canterbury condemned them.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 1. John Wycliffe (1328-84) • 1409 synod in London condemned doctrines of W. • Unauthorized translation of Bible • Unlicensed preachers • Some L. burned at stake • Henry V tried to exterminate Lollards
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 1. John Wycliffe (1328-84) • Council of Constance • Condemned W. on 260 counts • Ordered writings burned • Bones exhumed & cast out of consecrated ground • Papal command, bones dug up, burned and ashes thrown into nearby stream, 1428. • Lollardy continued
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • While Lollards being suppressed in Eng., a reformer directly influenced by life and writings of W. was emerging in Bohemia. • By 1409 H. rector of the U. of Prague • Popular preacher at Bethlehem Chapel • H. translated many of W’s writings into Czech • This, and persistent sermons on morals of clergy provoked hostility.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • Advocated: • NT as law of the church • Christlike poverty as Christian ideal • Reform of abuses like pilgrimages • Christ as head of church, not the pope • A predestined church of the elect • Didn’t agree with W. on remanence; did champion Czech demand that laity have the cup—chalice became sybol of Hussite movement
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • 1407 H. refused to be quiet, excommunicated by Archbishop of Prague • 1409 C. of Pisa elected 3rd pope; H. supported Pisan pope, but he also ordered H. to cease preaching • H. appealed to the successor, John XXIII, but John excommunicated H. and placed Prague under the interdict
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • Emperor Sigismund sought remedy by having H. present case to C. of Constance • H. went under imperial “safe conduct,” but was arrested, imprisoned, convicted as “a manifest heretic” and sentenced to burn. • Burned at stake July 6, 1415. • When news reached Prague country erupted in revolt.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • Czech & Moravian nobles pledged to defend reforms for which H. died • Common people attacked monasteries and churches • By Feb. 1416 all Prague chs in hands of reform clergy • Revolt abetted the rising nationalism challenging the papacy
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 2. John Hus (1369-1415) • Four Prague Articles • Freedom of preaching • Sacrament in both kinds to all Christians • Exemplary living and no secular power for priests • Punishment of all mortal sins
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Less drastic and thoroughly nonpolitical, but still created problems for church unity • Mystics did not directly challenge papacy and priesthood; did weaken ecclesiastical power by advocating direct contact with God • If man can have direct unification and identification with God, then clergy, sacraments, etc., even prayer, unnecessary
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Meister Eckhart (1260-1327)—most dynamic force in religious life of Germany before Reformation • Held— • Only reality in man & nature is the divine spark of God, which is in everything • Often accused of Pantheism
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Insisted he was striving for individual’s immersion and identification with God • “Feet and hands, and mouth and eyes, the heart, and all a man is and has, become God’s own.” • 1326 Eckhart accused but died before the proceedings • Believed to have influenced Luther on faith, Kant’s critical idealism, Hegel’s pantheism.
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Eckhart disciples: Johann Tauler and Henry Suso. • Tauler noted for preaching skill and devoted care of sick during Black Death of 1348. • Stressed union with God, but not for its own sake, but to produce benevolent and charitable service • The Mystic Way—virtues of humility and abandonment to will of God
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Henry Suso • Extolled suffering as the way to the exquisite love of God • John Ruysbroeck, Flemish priest popularized mystic contemplation • Gerhard Groot founded Brethren of the Common Life—semimonastic groups which emphasized poverty, chastity, obedience
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Brethren…did not beg like mendicant friars and were free to quit and return to secular life • Groot also helped develop Devotio Moderna (the modern way of serving God)—this was a spiritual revival in Catholic church • Many Brethren left mark—Nicholas of Cusa, Erasmus
D. The Critical-Reform Movement • 3. Mysticism • Man who best sums up faith of Devotio Moderna is Thomas a Kempis, author of Imitation of Christ (trans. into more languages than any book but Bible) • Imitation of Christ—to teach the way of perfection through following Christ’s example. • Is only toward the end that it even mentions the sacrament-based Catholicism from which it came.
E. The Renaissance Movement • Ca. 1300-1600 • “Renaissance”=“rebirth” revival • Revival of values of classical Greek and Roman civilization in arts, literature, and politics • Imp. Motifs—individualism, secularism, rationalism
E. The Renaissance Movement • 1. Humanism in Literature • R. began with revival of classical learning by scholars known as “humanists.” • Originally, someone who taught Latin grammar; then, someone who studied classical writings and molded life on what he read. • Most (early) were Christian & called for reform of education and morality.