16th through 18th Centuries Elizabethan England through Restoration
Elizabethan England • Strong monarch in Elizabeth I (last of the Tudors) • Defeat of Spanish Armada made England naval power (1588) • Increased overseas trade (esp. in India) making England rich • Sponsored explorations • Shrewd politician who sought peace and security for England
Elizabethan England • Renaissance thrived during her reign • Shakespeare • Protestantism firmly established in the Anglican Church • She promoted religious tolerance (as long as they were not political threat) • Executed Mary, Queen of Scots who plotted to recover the throne
The Stuarts • Stuarts took over after Elizabeth’s death • James I tried ruling by divine right and ignored Parliament • Strict Protestant who detested Puritans (left for New World) • Charles I caused much trouble for England during his reign • Conflict with Parliament; England seemed always at war with France and Spain
The Stuarts • Charles I • Forced to sign “Petition of Right” (very similar to man of our Bill of Rights amendments) which further limited King’s power • He conveniently ignored it when it suited him and he disbanded Parliament when it complained result: lost favor of people • Parliament reestablished by 1640 which moved to limit monarchy’s ability to tax and control army. Charles rejected proposals and used military to close down Parliament result: Civil War
English Civil War • English Civil War brought Oliver Cromwell to the front • Puritan general who eventually defeated Charles I • Ruled by force as the “Lord Protector” over a new republican gov’tcalled “Commonwealth. Abolished House of Lords • Cromwell brutal in his rule, and used army to crush opponents • Executed Charles I
The Restoration • Upon Cromwell’s death he was so disliked, England asked Charles II to take the throne • This is called “The Restoration” • Charles II popular but could not heal religious wounds festering from James, Cromwell or Charles • Promoted toleration over Parliament’s objections particularly since his brother James, a Catholic due to inherit throne
The Glorious Revolution • James II took throne in 1675 and immediately was unpopular • When heir born, Parliament offers crown to James’ daughter Mary (Protestant) and her husband William • Bloodless change of monarchs called “Glorious Revolution” • This even locked-in Parliament’s supremacy over the monarch
The Glorious Revolution • William and Mary signed “English Bill of Rights” which were rules for future English monarchs to follow • Crown dependent on Parliament for lawmaking, taxes, raising of armies, prohibiting speech + others • Served as examples for others (U.S.)
New Ideas In Europe • Scientific Revolution • Use of Scientific methodology and experimentation for discovering more about natural world • States a question, forms a hypothesis, make observations and conduct experiments, draw conclusions • This basically changed scientific thinking away from superstition and religious based reasoning.
Astronomy • Geocentric (earth at center of universe-sun travels around earth) vs. heliocentric (earth travels around sun-sun at center of universe) • Copernicus: (Polish) challenged geocentric viewpoint favored by Church and learned men of the time. Heresy! Not accepted until decades after his death.
Astronomy • Galileo: German scientist and mathematician who believed in experimentation to prove things • Used telescope to scan space, first to disprove objects in space were smooth and perfectly shaped, discovered moons around Jupiter • Findings also clashed with Church esp. in his book and brought before inquisition in 1633. Recanted and forbidden to publish heliocentric findings forever. • In 1979, Vatican announce it may have been mistaken in condemning Galileo
Astronomy • Kepler (German) – Proved Copernicus’s theories using math to show planets revolve around the sun.
Physics • Newton (English) – proved all objects in universe subject to same laws of motion. • Gravity (attraction of objects together) and inertia (resistance to change) were center points of his discoveries • Law of Inertia – a body at rest will stay at rest unless force is applied to make it move • A body in motion stays in motion unless some force causes it to stop or change direction
Physics • Newton’s laws showed gravitational pull of sun, movement of objects on earth • Greatest work was called Principia in which all his discoveries were published. • The universe likened to a clock whose parts worked perfectly according to strict, immutable scientific laws (God was clockmaker)
Biology • William Harvey (English) – workings of heart and circulation system in pumping blood through body • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) – first to build and use microscope and discover one-celled organisms. • Carl Linnaeus (Swedish) – developed a system for naming and classifying plants and over 4,000 animals. Called Linnaeus’s model.