Cuba in the 18th and 19th Centuries Key word: independence
18th Century Cuba • Huge slave population • Under the direct control of Spain • Only allowed to trade with Spain • All trading companies owned by Spain • Class system • America and Britain show interest
The Taking of Havana • 1762: Havana captured by the British during the Seven Years War • Britain allowed Cuba to trade with the rest of the world as part of the British Empire • 1763: Cuba swapped for Florida • Spain had to allow Cuba to continue to trade with the world or face rebellion
After 1763 • Cuban trade grew quickly • A middle-class began to develop • They wanted representation in government • Government was controlled by Spanish • Prepared to use violence to get representation • 1791 Haiti Rebellion
19th Century Cuba • Many were unhappy: • No political rights • No chance of government jobs • Slavery still allowed • Mistreatment of Cubans by Spanish • Banned from setting up businesses • Couldn’t travel without permission • This started the Ten Years War 1868, aimed at getting Cuban independence
The Ten Years War • Cuban leaders were Carlos Manuel de Cesperdes, Maximo Gomez, Calixto Garcia and Antonio Maceo • All were middle class • Some wanted independence, others just reforms
End of the Ten Years War • The war ended with the Pact of Zanjon • Slaves who had fought against Spain were to be released • Garcia (who had been captured) was set free • Cubans were to get representation in government
After 1878 • Most of the promised reforms did not happen • Slavery ended in 1888 • Cubans continued to lose out to Spaniards • In 1895, Jose Marti, a poet, called for the start of a War of Independence
No political rights Betrayal by Spanish Why did Jose Marti call for a War of Independence? Independence of other Latin American countries Cubans poorly treated
War of Independence – 1895-98 • Their strategy was to make Cuba economically worthless to Spain: crops and factories were burnt • In 1898, the U.S. entered the war on the Cuban side • In December 1898, Spain surrendered to America (not Cuba) and they signed the Treaty of Paris. Cuba was not allowed at the discussions • 1st January 1899 Spanish rule ended
Tactics and Atrocities War of Independence – 1895-98 • There were few pitched battles during the war. • The Cubans employed a hit-and-run, or guerilla, strategy. • They didn’t always wear uniforms. • Concentration camps set up by the Spanish, as well as the burning of crops and buildings by both sides. • General Weyler, the Spanish leader. • Spanish soldiers often killed or raped captured Cubans. • Spanish soldiers dug vast ditches, known as fosas, and forced Cubans into them. They were then left to die. • This led to immense distrust of foreign forces by Cubans.
Sources Source 1 - a US report into a fosanear Havana , 1896: “There was a complete accumulation of bodies dead and alive, so that it was impossible to take one step without walking over them; the greatest want of cleanliness, want of light, air and water; food lacking in quality and quantity, thus sooner putting an end to these broken-down wretches; complete absence of medical assistance; no consolation either moral or religious; if any young girl in any way nice looking was found, she was infallibly condemned to the most abominable of traffics” Source 2 – excavations into a fosa Source 3 – General Weyler’s order to the Cuban people in the Cuban War of Independence: “I command all the inhabitants of the country outside my line of fortification, to enter a town occupied by my troops. Anyone who, after eight days, is found in the countryside will be considered a rebel and treated as such”.
Questions • Study Source 1. Suggest and explain two areas where it may be exaggerating, and explain why this report might be exaggerated. • Study Source 2. How far does this confirm or deny the statements in Source 1? • Study Source 3. Why did Weyler issue this order? Explain your answer. • Study all the sources. Do you think that the strategies of Weyler helped or hindered the Spanish in the war? Explain your answer.
American Occupation • American forces remained in Cuba until 1901. • American values of the time moved into Cuba. • In 1902, Cuba and America agreed the Platt Amendment. • Gave USA control of the port of Guantanamo • Gave USA the right to intervene in Cuban politics if “independence” was “threatened”