Download
cuba in the 18 th and 19 th centuries n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Cuba in the 18 th and 19 th Centuries PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Cuba in the 18 th and 19 th Centuries

Cuba in the 18 th and 19 th Centuries

110 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Cuba in the 18 th and 19 th Centuries

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Cuba in the 18th and 19th Centuries Key word: independence

  2. 18th Century Cuba • Huge slave population • Under the direct control of Spain • Only allowed to trade with Spain • All trading companies owned by Spain • Class system • America and Britain show interest

  3. The Taking of Havana • 1762: Havana captured by the British during the Seven Years War • Britain allowed Cuba to trade with the rest of the world as part of the British Empire • 1763: Cuba swapped for Florida • Spain had to allow Cuba to continue to trade with the world or face rebellion

  4. After 1763 • Cuban trade grew quickly • A middle-class began to develop • They wanted representation in government • Government was controlled by Spanish • Prepared to use violence to get representation • 1791 Haiti Rebellion

  5. 19th Century Cuba • Many were unhappy: • No political rights • No chance of government jobs • Slavery still allowed • Mistreatment of Cubans by Spanish • Banned from setting up businesses • Couldn’t travel without permission • This started the Ten Years War 1868, aimed at getting Cuban independence

  6. The Ten Years War • Cuban leaders were Carlos Manuel de Cesperdes, Maximo Gomez, Calixto Garcia and Antonio Maceo • All were middle class • Some wanted independence, others just reforms

  7. End of the Ten Years War • The war ended with the Pact of Zanjon • Slaves who had fought against Spain were to be released • Garcia (who had been captured) was set free • Cubans were to get representation in government

  8. After 1878 • Most of the promised reforms did not happen • Slavery ended in 1888 • Cubans continued to lose out to Spaniards • In 1895, Jose Marti, a poet, called for the start of a War of Independence

  9. No political rights Betrayal by Spanish Why did Jose Marti call for a War of Independence? Independence of other Latin American countries Cubans poorly treated

  10. War of Independence – 1895-98 • Their strategy was to make Cuba economically worthless to Spain: crops and factories were burnt • In 1898, the U.S. entered the war on the Cuban side • In December 1898, Spain surrendered to America (not Cuba) and they signed the Treaty of Paris. Cuba was not allowed at the discussions • 1st January 1899 Spanish rule ended

  11. Tactics and Atrocities War of Independence – 1895-98 • There were few pitched battles during the war. • The Cubans employed a hit-and-run, or guerilla, strategy. • They didn’t always wear uniforms. • Concentration camps set up by the Spanish, as well as the burning of crops and buildings by both sides. • General Weyler, the Spanish leader. • Spanish soldiers often killed or raped captured Cubans. • Spanish soldiers dug vast ditches, known as fosas, and forced Cubans into them. They were then left to die. • This led to immense distrust of foreign forces by Cubans.

  12. Sources Source 1 - a US report into a fosanear Havana , 1896: “There was a complete accumulation of bodies dead and alive, so that it was impossible to take one step without walking over them; the greatest want of cleanliness, want of light, air and water; food lacking in quality and quantity, thus sooner putting an end to these broken-down wretches; complete absence of medical assistance; no consolation either moral or religious; if any young girl in any way nice looking was found, she was infallibly condemned to the most abominable of traffics” Source 2 – excavations into a fosa Source 3 – General Weyler’s order to the Cuban people in the Cuban War of Independence: “I command all the inhabitants of the country outside my line of fortification, to enter a town occupied by my troops. Anyone who, after eight days, is found in the countryside will be considered a rebel and treated as such”.

  13. Questions • Study Source 1. Suggest and explain two areas where it may be exaggerating, and explain why this report might be exaggerated. • Study Source 2. How far does this confirm or deny the statements in Source 1? • Study Source 3. Why did Weyler issue this order? Explain your answer. • Study all the sources. Do you think that the strategies of Weyler helped or hindered the Spanish in the war? Explain your answer.

  14. American Occupation • American forces remained in Cuba until 1901. • American values of the time moved into Cuba. • In 1902, Cuba and America agreed the Platt Amendment. • Gave USA control of the port of Guantanamo • Gave USA the right to intervene in Cuban politics if “independence” was “threatened”