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APA Style Workshop An Introductory Presentation Based on the 6th Edition APA Style Manual
This presentation will cover… • What is APA Style? • How does APA Style look? • Title Page • In-Text Citations • Reference Page • Headings • Questions?
Why Use APA Style? • Allows reader to cross-reference sources easily • Consistent format within a discipline • Gives credibility as a writer • Protection from plagiarism when used properly
Where is APA Style Located? • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. • Writing Tutors – School of Social Work and University Wide • American Psychological Association • www.apastyle.org • OWL website – FREE to all: • http://owl.english.purdue.edu
An APA Style Checklist… • Double spacing throughout • 1 inch margins on all sides of page • A complete title page • A legible 12 pt. font throughout • Manuscript pages have a running head along with the page number on each page • A complete reference page • Clearly labeled appendices • Proper citations throughout
Title Page • Student’s paper in APA Style should include a title page. • Include the paper’s title and the author’s name and affiliation.
APA Style: Two Main Concerns • In-Text Citations • Reference Page
In-Text Citations When Should Students Use In-Text Citations? • When summarizing facts and ideas from a source • When paraphrasing a source • When quoting any words that belong to others
Quotes in Text • Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text: 1. According to Smith (2006), "Students often had difficulty using the library, especially when it was their first time" (p. 75). 2. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using the library" (Smith, 2006, p. 75), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Paraphrasing in Text If you paraphrase an idea from a source, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required). • According to Johnson (2006), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Johnson, 2006, p. 199).
In-Text Citations Sometimes additional information is necessary • If citing a work that has no author, no date, and no page numbers • ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.). • Two or more works in the same parentheses • (Yee, 1996; Leone, 1975; Gill, 1997). • Work with three or more authors • (Van Dyke et al., 1998). • Specific part of a source • (Jones, 1995, ¶. 2). or (Jones, 1995, chap. 2).
In-Text Citations • A reference to a personal communication: Source: email message from W. Geoffrey Young Citation: (W. G. Young, personal communication, May 16, 2011).
In-Text Citations Long Quotations (block quotes) Example: • Statham (1993) found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Reference Page A Reference Page is Necessary in an APA Style Paper • A list of every source that a student makes reference to in an essay. • Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in an essay. • Each retrievable source cited in an essay must appear on the reference page, and vice versa.
Sample Reference Page… Photo source: http://www.matchware.com/en/special/apa-bibliography.php
Reference Page Continued… • Secondary sources… • In-Text citation would be… • In Smith’s study (as cited in Jones 1993), ... • In the reference page, Jones would be listed as a source. • Use secondary sources VERY sparingly.
More Examples of References… • A journal article with one author Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 45, 893-896. • A source with no known authorCigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises. (1999, September 14). New York Times, p. A17.
Why Use Headings in APA Style? • APA Style uses headings to help a reader easily understand the organization of a paper • Levels of heading establish via format or appearance the hierarchy of sections to orient the reader • All topics of equal importance have the same level heading throughout a paper
Why Headings Make Sense • Transitions are clear • Easy to orient the reader • Most published work we read contains headings for ease of reading, why shouldn’t papers?
Three Examples of Headings • One level Centered Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Letters • Two levels Centered Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Letters Flush Left Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Letters • Three levels Centered Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Letters Flush Left Boldface Uppercase and Lowercase Letters Indented boldface lowercase paragraph letters ending with a period.
Suggestions For Further Reading… • On Writing Well, 25th Anniversary : The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction - by William K. Zinsser • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Editionby - American Psychological Association • Purdue University’s Writing Lab - http://owl.english.purdue.edu • Plagiarism dot org - http://www.plagiarism.org • http://doso.wayne.edu/student-conduct/Academic_Integrity.html
THE END! If you have any additional questions regarding APA Style, please make an appointment with your tutor!