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Facility Layout

Facility Layout. Chapter 10 pages 345-349, 359-360, 367-368. MGMT 326. Products & Processes. Quality Assurance. Planning & Control. Foundations of Operations. Facilities. Capacity and Location. Managing Projects. Managing Quality. Introduction. Strategy. Product Design.

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Facility Layout

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  1. Facility Layout Chapter 10 pages 345-349, 359-360, 367-368

  2. MGMT 326 Products & Processes Quality Assurance Planning & Control Foundations of Operations Facilities Capacity and Location Managing Projects Managing Quality Introduction Strategy Product Design Statistical Process Control Facility Layout Process Design Just-in-Time & Lean Systems

  3. Presentation Outline • Importance of layout planning • Process and product layouts • Office layouts • Designing cellular layouts

  4. What Is Layout Planning? • Layout planning is determining the best physical arrangement of resources within a facility

  5. Why is layout planning important? • Eliminates unnecessary costs for space and materials handling • Reduces work-in-process inventory • Produces goods and services faster • Reduces distances that workers must travel in the workplace • Improves communication and morale • Increases retail sales • Improves brand image

  6. Types of Layouts • Process layouts: Group similar resources together • Product layouts: Designed to produce a specific product, or a small number of products efficiently • Hybrid layouts: Combine aspects of both process and product layouts • Example: cellular layout • Fixed-Position layouts: Product is too large to move • Examples: building construction, shipyard • Resources must be brought to where they are needed

  7. Process and Product Layouts

  8. Process Layouts • Used in project and batch manufacturing (intermittent processes) • Also used in department stores, offices, hospitals, and universities • Able to make or sell a variety of products • Use general purpose resources • Less automation than in product layouts

  9. Process Layouts (2) • Material handling costs per unit are higher than in product layouts • Scheduling production is more complex than in product layouts

  10. Product Layouts • Used in assembly lines and continuous manufacturing (repetitive processes) • A cafeteria line is a product layout • In manufacturing, product layouts are used to produce one product, or a small group of products, efficiently • Uses special purpose resources • More automation than in process layouts

  11. Product Layouts (2) • Material handling costs per unit are lower than in process layouts • Scheduling production is simpler than in process layouts

  12. Designing Process Layouts • Step 1: Gather information: • Space needed, space available, importance of proximity between various units • Step 2: Develop alternative block plans: • Using trial-and-error or decision support tools • 2 approaches • Relationship (REL) chart • From-to matrix • Can use both • Decision support systems are heuristic methods • Usually give a "good" solution • Solution may not be optimal (best solution)

  13. Designing Process Layouts (2) • Step 3: Develop a detailed layout • Consider exact sizes and shapes of departments and work centers including aisles and stairways • Tools like drawings, 3-D models, and computer-assisted design (CAD) software are often used

  14. Process Layout Example Block layout for a sports medicine clinic

  15. Process Layout Example (2)

  16. Process Layout Example (3)

  17. Process Layout Example (4) Proposed Layout

  18. Process Layout Example (5)

  19. Designing Product Layouts • Objectives • Produce the required number of units to meet demand • Use workers and equipment efficiently • High utilization of workers and equipment • Balance workload among employees

  20. Designing Product Layouts (2) • Based on a precedence diagram • Assign tasks to work stations • Assign work stations to locations

  21. Office Layouts • Almost half the U. S. work force works in an office • Human interaction and communication are the primary considerations in office layouts • People who need to interact frequently should be close to each other • One key layout tradeoff is between closeness and privacy

  22. Office Layouts (2) • Open concept officespromote understanding and trust. • A few closed rooms are needed for private discussions, such as personnel matters. • Moveable walls provide flexibility to change the layout when needed.

  23. Office Layout Example3D Systems • Hi-tech company – provides equipment and materials for rapid product design and manufacturing • Rock Hill headquarters handles product design, sales, training, and administration • Open office plan • Conference room • Areas for informal meetings • Product showroom for customers • Cyber café and fitness center for employees

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