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Finding Out Why It Happens

Finding Out Why It Happens

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Finding Out Why It Happens

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  1. 2 Finding Out Why It Happens • In this unit you will learn how to: • give reasons why something happened. • express wishes, complaints, giving orders, and suggestions. • write an explanation text. look ahead-erlangga

  2. A. LET’S TALK • Look at the pictures. Then answer the questions Stage 1.Giving reasons why something happened Getting Started Some students complete their classroom assignments on a personal computer. By making the lesson a game or enhancing it with sounds, graphics, and animation, computers make learning more enjoyable and increase retention. look ahead-erlangga

  3. What do you think? • Do you know how to operate a computer? • How long have you studied with a computer? • What can computers do to help your work? • Do you know how a computer carries out instructions? • Do you agree with the above statement that says: “…. Computers make learning more enjoyable and increase retention”? Why/ why not? look ahead-erlangga

  4. B. ACTIVE LISTENING • Read and listen to a text about a pipeline and pay attention to the intonation. Circle the right action verbs used in the text. Then, fill in the table. look ahead-erlangga

  5. Have you ever heard about a pipeline in computer technology? Guess what. Right. A pipeline is very close to a computer. But can you tell me what apipeline is? Well, let me explain. A pipeline in a computer is a sequence of stages a computer (1.uses, chooses, processes) to carry out instructions. The CPU makes sure every stage in a pipeline is always (2. doing, working, operating) on an instruction. As a stage of pipeline in the CPU (3. finishes, separates, deletes) manipulating an instruction, it (4. keeps, hands, works) its instruction to the next stage and gets another instruction from the stage before it, (5. running, moving, stopping) several look ahead-erlangga

  6. instructions along the pipeline simultaneously. This process is more efficient than it would be if it instruction had to start at the first stage after the previous instruction finished the final stage. Oh, I almost forgot, the more pipelines a CPU has, the faster it can (6. execute, cut, link) instructions. A CPU with two or more pipelines is said to be super pipelined or superscalar. Okay. Have you got it? Not yet. How about (7. going, visiting, playing) to the library and (8. searching, discovering, finding) more explanations about a pipeline? See you and good luck. (Adapted from: Microsoft Encarta Reference Library,2005) look ahead-erlangga

  7. Find out look ahead-erlangga

  8. C. Your turn • Work in group of three. Develop the dialog below based on the situation given. Situation: Rangga and his friend, Cinta are looking for information about a pipeline in their school library when their computer teacher, Mr. Ari greats them. look ahead-erlangga

  9. D. A. TRY THIS • Work in pairs. Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary. THINK ABOUT IT • Look at the following picture. Then, answer the questions. • By the way : ______________________ • Looking for : ______________________ • I still don’t get it :__________________ • If you don’t mind :__________________ • No problem : ______________________ Get It Right look ahead-erlangga

  10. Where are they? • Who are they? • What are they talking about? • Why did the man with glasses ask Tom to stop singing? • What was Tom’s response? What did he say? look ahead-erlangga

  11. WAYS TO SAY IT Expressing Wishes Giving general wishes: Responding to general wishes: • I wish you luck • Good luck • Best of luck • Good fortune be with you. • I hope that everything goes OK for you. • Thank you • Thank you very much • Many thanks • Thanks. You too. • Thank you and the same to you. • Thank you and Happy New Year to you too. look ahead-erlangga

  12. Giving general wishes: • I’m sure that everything will work out just fine. • May you be happy and successful in your new life. • Well, we hope that everything will be alright. • I hope you have a good/ pleasant/ enjoyable … • Please give your parents my best wishes. look ahead-erlangga

  13. B. TRY THIS • Listen to the following dialogue. While listening, fill in the blanks. Pay attention to the intonation used in the dialogues. Then, answer the questions. Dialogue 1 Andy : Hi, Windy. Windy : Hi. (1) ________________? Andy : I’m going to ask Mr. Indra for a remedial test. Windy : You’re finally going to do it, huh? Good fortune be with you. (2) ___________ Andy : So do I look ahead-erlangga

  14. Dialogue 2 Teacher : So, John, have you decided what are you going to (3) ____________________ this morning? Student : Yes, sir. I got an article about ‘pipeline’. Teacher : You did? Well, congratulation. I think you’ll do very (4)__________________ because you like studying computer very much. Beat of luck. Student : (5) ______________, sir. look ahead-erlangga

  15. Find out • Dialogue 1 • What are they talking about? • Who are they? • What expressions are used in the dialogue to wish good fortune? • Dialogue 2 • What are they talking about? • Who are they? • Why do they wish good fortune for their friends? look ahead-erlangga

  16. C. YOUR TURN * Work in pairs. Discuss the following situations with your partner. Choose one of these situations and develop it into an interactive dialogue. Use gambits expressing wishes. Then, perform the dialogue. • One of your friends is going to have a final examination. You meet him/ her on the street. • Two people are talking in an office. One of them has to go to a different city for along period of time. This is the last time you will see each other. • You are talking with an acquaintance at a party. She tells you that she’s going to study abroad. look ahead-erlangga

  17. D. ENJOY THIS. * Give your best wishes when: • Someone is joining a competition. • Someone is applying for a scholarship. • Someone is celebrating a special event. • Someone is moving to another town. • Someone is moving to another school. look ahead-erlangga

  18. WAYS TO SAY IT Complaining and giving an order Expressing complaint: Giving an order : • I want to complaint about this shoes. • Well, this is the most unsatisfactory service I’ve ever found. I booked the room myself a week ago. • I’m afraid … it’s just not good enough. • Give me that! • Be quiet! • Don’t sit there! • Do it right now, will you? • Stop it. I tell you! • Will you hurry up! • I order you to get out! look ahead-erlangga

  19. Expressing complaint: Giving an order : • What can you do about these rooms? • Something must be done. • I’m sorry to say this, but this room is very dirty. • I’m afraid I’ve got a complaint about … • Would you mind not talking too loudly? • Will you please stop talking! • Would you please sit down! • Do you mind not singing! • You must wait here! look ahead-erlangga

  20. look ahead-erlangga

  21. E. YOUR TURN * If you were in the following situation, what would you say? • Your friend has spent nearly three hours trying to choose a present for his mother. As a result both of you missed your bus home. What would you say? • It’s 2 o’clock in the morning and you are trying to sleep. Twice you have telephoned your neighbor to complain about the noise of a party being held there, but the noise is still just as bad. You telephone again, but get very little cooperation. What would you say? look ahead-erlangga

  22. F. ENJOY THIS * Read the following dialogue and answer the questions. Then, practice the dialogue with your friends in front of the class. 3. A bus conductor didn’t give your money back. What would you say? 4. You are concentrating in a library. Your close friend, who is sitting next to you, is talking loudly on a phone. What would you say? look ahead-erlangga

  23. Situation: Two students are having a talk with their teacher. Teacher :Good morning students. Well, we are now going to have apresentation about the respiration system. Hey, you two. Be quiet! 1st student:I am sorry, sir. But may I ask you something before the presentation? Teacher :Of course. What’s the matter? 2nd student:You see, we are planning to use OHP instead of ‘Power Point’ because we have some difficulties in scanning some pictures. look ahead-erlangga

  24. Teacher :It’s okay. But don’t forget, you have to prepare the OHP yourself. 1st student:Yes, sir. Thank you. Find out: • Where are they? • What are they doing? • What are they talking about? • What does the teacher ask the students to do? • Underline expression of giving an order. look ahead-erlangga

  25. WAYS TO SAY IT Giving suggestions Asking for suggestions: • Should I try to talk with him about this matter again? • If you were me, what would you tell her? • If you were in my situation, would you forgive him? • What do you advice I pack for the trip? • Do you think I ought to call the police? • What do you think I should buy him for his birthday? • Do you have any ideas about how I can sell my car? look ahead-erlangga

  26. Offering suggestions : • How about taking a bus instead of driving? • Try ignoring her for awhile. • I’d say that you’d better quit the team now. • I advice you to talk with your lawyer. • I think you’d better start looking for a new job. • If I were you, I’d stop writing her. • It would probably be a good idea to send this by Express mail. • Why don’t you try calling her tonight? look ahead-erlangga

  27. look ahead-erlangga

  28. G. TRY THIS * Listen to the following dialogues. While listening, fill in the blanks. Then, answer the questions. Dialogue 1 Mike : Do you think we should look at these brochures? Susan : That’s good Idea. Mike : How about ‘Lombok’ instead of ‘Bali’. It looks more interesting. Susan : (1) _________ but we lack information about ‘Lombok’. Mike : You’re right. We don’t have enough time to look for it. Well, (2) ___________. Susan : How about, Padang? Let’s try that. Mike : Alright. What pictures do you think we should insert in our presentation? Susan : Let’s take some photos of a few well-known places there. look ahead-erlangga

  29. Mike : (3) _________. I hope our presentation will be more interesting by inserting them. Susan : O.K. Let’s get to work. Dialogue 2 Tina : Noboru, I’m so happy knowing that you at last successfully asked Laura out for dinner. It’s about time. Noboru : Well, to be honest, I was a bit nervous, but surprisingly she accepted right away. Tina : Where are you taking her? Noboru : Maybe the Manor.(4)_____________, Tina? Tina : Wow! That place is expensive, Noboru! Noboru : I know, but Laura’s very special. Tina : Oh, Okay. Don’t forget to talk to Laura during dinner. If you just sit there like a sphinx, she’ll feel uncomfortable. look ahead-erlangga

  30. Noboru : Cool it Tina. We’ve been through your lessons on manners a hundred times! Where should I take her after dinner? Tina : (5) _________ go to the Paradise Club. It’s the most romantic place around here. Just perfect for the two of you. Find out: • Who are the speakers in dialogue 1 and 2? • What are they talking about? • Who asks for a suggestion? • Who offers a recommendation? • Underline the expressions of asking for or offering suggestions in the previous dialogues. look ahead-erlangga

  31. H. ENJOY THIS * Work in pairs. Complete the following dialogue with expressions of suggestion. Then, perform it in front of the class. Situation: A student is talking with her English teacher. Student : Miss Wati, what do you advise me to do about my English lesson? Should I take a private course? Teacher : _________________________________________ Student : What if my mother says _____________________ Teacher : Then follow _______________________________ Student : But I _____________________________________ Teacher : That’s why ________________________________ Student : O.K. Thanks for your advice. Teacher : You’re welcome. look ahead-erlangga

  32. A. THINK ABOUT IT • Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary. Moving Forward • Used : ____________ 10. sculpture : ________ ____ • Coated : ____________ 11. solidified : ____________ • Encased : ____________ 12. layer : ____________ • Melted : ____________ 13. mold : ____________ • Removed : ____________ 14. plaster : ____________ • Poured : ____________ 15. clay : ____________ • Broken : ____________ 16. ancient : ____________ • Wax : ____________ 17. utilitarian : ____________ • Casting : ____________ 18. dentures : ____________ look ahead-erlangga

  33. B. FIRST CHALLENGE • Read and listen carefully to the following explanation. While listening, fill in the blanks. Then, answer the questions. A general state- ment Good morning students. Hmm, have you ever heard about ‘Cire Perdue’ or ‘Lost Wax’? Well, (1) _________ me explain. ‘Cire Perdue’ which is the French word for ‘Lost Wax’ is a process of wax casting used in making metal sculptures. look ahead-erlangga

  34. Closing A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs When a model id coated with wax, the solidified wax is encased in a two-layer mold of plaster or clay. It is (2) _____ melted or otherwise removed from the mold, and metal is poured into the space where the wax had been. Oh, I almost forgot, after cooling, the mold is (3) __________ to free the metal object. This ancient method is used to produce sculptures, jewelry, and utilitarian (4) _________ such as dentures. Do you understand? Not yet? Okay, how about going to the library to find more information about ‘Lost Wax’? (5) _______ and good luck. (Adapted from: www. Searchencarta. Com) look ahead-erlangga

  35. Find out: • What does the text tell you? • What is Lost Wax? • What are the tools you need in the Lost Wax process? • How many stages are there in the Lost Wax process? • Which of these is the purpose of the text? • a. To describe the way things are. • b. To explain the processes involved in the formation of sociocultural phenomena. • Can you find expressions typically used in conversation in the text? Mention them. look ahead-erlangga

  36. C. SECOND CHALLENGE • Read and listen carefully to the following explanation. While listening, fill in the blanks. Then, answer the questions. • Circle all the action verbs used in the text. • Underline all the passive sentences used in the text! • Are there any conjunctions used in the text? Mention them! • Is the text written in the present tense? Why? look ahead-erlangga

  37. A general state- ment A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs MAKING PAPER FROM WOODCHIPS Do you have any paper in your bag? It may seem like a silly question but do you know how to make (1) __________? What is paper made of? Right. And how about ‘wood chipping?’ Have you ever heard about it? Well, wood chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from (2) __________ trees. First of all, the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the (3) _________ the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The (4) ________ are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Hmm, … at this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into the pulp by chemicals and heat. Oh, I almost forgot, the (5) ________ is then bleached and the water content is removed. Finally, the pulp is rolled out to make paper. look ahead-erlangga

  38. Closing Considering the complexity is making paper, let’s (6) _______ any paper on our hands. Use it more effectively. Thank you for listening. Bye. Find out: • What are ‘wood chips’? • What is the first stage of wood chipping? • How many stages are there before the pulp is rolled to make paper? What are they? • At the mill, the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them. The word ‘them’ refers to ________. • Which of these is the purpose of the text? • a. To describe the way things are. • b. To explain the process involved in the formation of sociocultural phenomena. • 6. Can you find gambits in the text? Mention them. look ahead-erlangga

  39. How many action verbs are there used in the text? What are they? • Are there any abstract words in the text? What are they? • Underline all the passive sentences used in the text. • Are there any conjunctions used in the text? Mention them! Did you know ? • An abstract noun is a word for a concept. It is an idea that exists in our minds only. We call them abstract nouns because we can’t see, touch, and smell them. Those words can’t be perceived by the senses. • See the examples given in the bold words. • I think I like herbeauty. • I think I like this kindness. • a very complex process. look ahead-erlangga

  40. E. FOURTH CHALLENGE • Work in group of four. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words. Label the generic structure. Then answer the questions. stages process convenience In the second step hydrogen atoms literal meaning reaction light energy photosynthesis chemical energy light synthesize glucose reaction look ahead-erlangga

  41. (1) __________ is a very complex (2) ___________, and the for the sake of (3) ________ and easy of understanding, plant biologist divided it into two (4) ________. In the first stage, i.e. the light-dependent (5) _________, the chloroplast traps (6) __________ and converts it into (7) _________ contained in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), two molecules used (8) ___________ of photosynthesis. In the second stage, called the light independent (9) _______ (formerly called the dark reaction), NADPH provides the (10) ________ that helps form glucose, and ATP provides the energy for this and other reactions used to (11) ________. These two stages reflect the (12) _______ of the trm photosynthesis, to build with (13) ________. (Taken from: Article Online.com) look ahead-erlangga

  42. A. FIRST PROJECT • Work in groups of four. Arrange the following paragraphs into a good order: a general statement, explanation, and closing. Then answer the questions. Find out: • Do you know the important parts of tree in which the process of photosynthesis occurs? • Have you studied how the photosynthesis works? Explain it as simple as possible. • Compare your answers with the other groups’ answer. • Discuss the differences. Ask your teacher for the best answer. Hand in Hand look ahead-erlangga

  43. Human Respiratory System look ahead-erlangga

  44. Do you know what helps your body get oxygen from the air? Right. it’s the respiratory system. Can you tell me the most important organs in the respiratory system? Yes, your nose, mouth, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. …….. The second phase of respiration begins with the movement of carbon dioxide from the cells to the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries carbon dioxide t o the heart, which pumps the carbon dioxide-laden blood to the lungs. …….. The first phase of begins with breathing in or inhalation. This inhalation brings air fro out side the body into the lungs. Oxygen in the air moves from the lung through blood vessels to the heart, which pumps the oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. Oxygen then moves from the blood stream into cells, which completes the first phase of respiration. In the cells, oxygen is used in a separate energy producing-process called cellular respiration., which produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. …….. In the lungs, Breathing out or exhalation removes carbon dioxide from the body, thus completing the respiration cycle. Do you understand so far? (the bell rings) Well, sorry. I guess time is up for today. So see you tomorrow. Bye …….. The respiratory system, in anatomy and physiology, are organs that deliver oxygen to the circulatory system for transport to all the body cells. The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to deliver oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide in a two-phase process called respiration. …….. look ahead-erlangga

  45. Find out: • Why are these organs (nose, lungs, trachea, mouth, bronchial tube, diaphragm) really essential for us? • Do you know what would happen if those organs are not working properly? • How many phases are there in the respiration process? • The first phase of respiration occurs in ______________. • What happens in the first phase of respiration? Complete the following sentences. • First,________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Then,________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Afterthat,_____________________________________________________________________________________________ • Finally,_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • What happens in the second phase of respiration? Complete the following. • First,________________________________________________________________________________________________ look ahead-erlangga

  46. Then,________________________________________________________________________________________________ Then,________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Which of these is the purpose of the text? Mention them. • a. To describe the way things are. • b. To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural phenomena. • 8. Can you find any gambits in the text? Mention them. • How many sentences are there written in passive form? Write them here. • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 10 Are there any conjunctions used in the text? Mention them! look ahead-erlangga

  47. B. SECOND PROJECT • Work in groups. Read the previous text about the respiratory system again. Then, develop the text into a meaningful dialogue and read it in front of the class. HINT Consider the following steps you should do. • Think of the following: • a. Where does the dialogue take place? • b. When does it occur? • c. How many people are there in the dialogue? • How old are they? • Make a list of expressions you are going to use. • See the example. look ahead-erlangga

  48. Show It Off YOUR MISSION • Make your own explanation text. Follow the instructions below. Then, read your explanation text to a friend sitting next to you. • Based on the above pictures, think of the process you are going to explain. List all important words you will be using to make a general statement. • Write the expressions and functions you are going to use in the opening of your text. • Write how the process occurs in a logical sequence. List all the important words you will use in each phase. • Write the expressions you are going to use in each phase. • Think how to end your text nicely. List all the important words and also the gambits you want to use. look ahead-erlangga

  49. Don’t forget: • ● to include conjunctions to make coherence in your paragraph. • ● to vary the sentences in the present tense using passive and active sentences. • ● to use abstract words/ nouns. • ● to elaborate your supporting sentences by giving data examples, statistics, etc. • ● to check gambits, spelling, capitalization, commas, and pronoun references. look ahead-erlangga

  50. HINT Consider the following steps you should do. • Gather your information using this mind mapping. • Use Peer-editing Checklist. • Find a partner and exchange your compositions. Follow these steps: • a. Read your partner’s composition. Do not make any marks on the paper. Just get the main points. • b. Read the paper again. This time underline words, phrases, or expressions that don’t seem correct or are difficult to understand. • c. Do you have any question about the contents of the composition? • If so, write them on the comments sheet. Then write any suggestions to the writer for improving his/ her composition. look ahead-erlangga