Life on the Plains A look at people!!
Warm-Up - 9/18/12 • What was the Homestead Act? • Was life in the West better for African Americans? WYMK • How did life on the plains change the social class structure in America? • How did the Dawes Act affect Native Americans? European Americans?
Life on the plains • Many found it very difficult • Lack of trees and water • Homes are built from sod • Summer temperatures over 100 degrees • Prairie fires are a constant danger • Crops destroyed by grasshoppers • Winter extremely cold and a harsh environment
Native American Culture • What do you know about Early Native Americans? • How did they Live? • How did they survive • What was their culture?
Nomads • tribe that has no permanent home but moves around seasonally following a source of food.
“it would be a great step forward in the civilization of the Indians and the preservation of peace on the border if there was not a buffalo in existence.” • Congressman James Throckmorton - Texas
Indian Battles Westward Trails
Warm-Up - 9/19/12 • Why was the Buffalo such a crucial part of Indian Culture? • What is Assimilation? WYMK • How did the Dawes Act affect Native Americans? European Americans? • Why were Native American Children sent to Boarding Schools in the East?
Assimilate • American plan to encourage Native Americans to be absorbed into American Society as landowners and citizens. http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=877B859C-E084-410C-84E7-E3B53067D01A
The Dawes Act, 1887 (The General Allotment Act) • Ended the Reservation System. • It broke up reservation lands • Each Native American family (headed by a man) an allotment of 160 acres. • U.S. citizenship Henry Dawes – Republican Rep (Massachusetts)
Native Americans were not farmers, they were hunters. Native Americans lost about 90 million acres of treaty land About 90,000 Indians made landless. Whites were able to buy Indian Land The DAWES ACT’s PROBLEMS http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=877B859C-E084-410C-84E7-E3B53067D01A
Video on Native Americans and the Reservation http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=877B859C-E084-410C-84E7-E3B53067D01A 2:25 MARK TAKE NOTES ON SOME OF THE WAYS THAT INDIAN CHILDREN WERE BRAINWASHED
AMERICANIZE • NA children sent away to school to learn “American” ways. • NAs wanted to live away from the white society. • For NAs to be = Ws; had to give up language, religion, customs and leave other NAs.
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques • Many boarding schools were far away from reservations so that students would have no contact with their families and friends • Parents were discouraged from visiting and, in most cases, students were not allowed to go home during the summer. • Indian boarding school students wore military uniforms and were forced to march.
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques (cont.) • Students were forbidden to speak their native language. • Students were forbidden to practice their religion. They were forced to memorize Bible verses and the Lord’s Prayer. • Students were taught the Indian way of life was savage and inferior to the white way. They were taught that they were being civilized or "raised up" to a better way of life.
Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques (cont.) • Indian students were told Indian people were stupid, dirty, and backwards. • Those who most quickly assimilated were called "good Indians." Those who didn’t were called "bad" Indians. • Students were shamed and humiliated for showing homesickness. • When they finally did go home, many boarding school students had a difficult time fitting in.
Exit Discussion • Why do you think some of Assimilation techniques did not work with Native Americans? • Compare the techniques used with Native Americans to those of African Americans?
Warm-Up • “I will remain what I am until I die, a hunter, and when there are no buffalo or other game I will send my children to hunt and live on prairie mice, for where an Indian is shut up in one place his body becomes weak.” - Quote by Sitting Bull on 3/23/1879 How does this quote by Sitting Bull represent the feelings of the Indians towards the Dawes Act and Westward Expansion. How do you think he plans to handle settlers encroaching on his peoples land??
What you need to know 1. Explain the method that Native Americans used to battle for equality in the United States.
Ghost Dance • Movement by prophet of peace Wovoka • Circular dance that promoted clean living • Contributed to Wounded Knee Massacre http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7591B500-88C7-4563-808B-C418FA3D6717&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Group Activity • Groups will have separate Native American Conflicts. • Who was involved • What happened • What was the result of the Conflict. 1.Sand Creek Massacre 2. Little Big Horn 3. Geronimo Campaigns 4. Wounded Knee 5. Flight of Nez Perce
Native American Wars 1.Sand Creek Massacre 2. Little Big Horn 3. Geronimo Campaigns 4. Wounded Knee 5. Flight of Nez Perce
Native American Resistance Little Big Horn Sitting Bull Custer
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce Tribe “Our Chiefs are killed….. The little children are freezing to death. My people…. Have no blankets, no food… Hear me chiefs; I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever”
Exit Question • "Whenever the white man treats the indian as they treat each other, then we will have no more wars. We shall all be alike--brothers of one father and one another, with one sky above us and one country around us, and one government for all.” – Chief Joseph, Nez Perce • Do the views of Chief Joseph resemble the thoughts of African American leader Booker T Washington or WEB Dubois. Explain?
The Ghost Dance Discussion The picture to the right is a Ghost Dance dress which Indians believed would keep white’s bullets from harming them. The great Sioux chief Sitting Bull strongly encouraged his people to practice the Ghost dance. Why do you think this ritual alarmed the US government and the army?
Warm-up pg 27 • How did the Homestead Act affect the Railroads? • WYMK: How did the new inventions affect the American standard of living?
Standard of living • The ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants. • People with higher incomes usually have higher standards of living. (they can afford more stuff)