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Data Collection

Data Collection

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Data Collection

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  1. Data Collection Prof. Dr. Ali ŞEN

  2. Objectives After completion of this session the students should be able to: • Identify major types of data collection methods • Perform a data collection plan • Compare different type of Self-Reports • Discuss observational methods • Differentiate between validity and reliability

  3. OutlinesPart 1 :Measurement & data collection • Major types of data collection methods • Developing a data collection plan • Implementing a data collection plan • Research examples

  4. Cont. Part 11 Self-Reports • Unstructured & Semi-Structured Instruments • Questionnaires Versus interviews: • An assessment • Response Biases

  5. cont.Part 3 :Observational methods • Observational methods: Unstructured observations Structured observations

  6. Cont, :Part 4. Assessing data quality • Measurement • Reliability of measuring instruments • Validity • Other criteria for assessing quantitative measure • Assessment of qualitative data

  7. Introduction • Data collection means gathering information to address those critical evaluation questions that you have identified earlier in the evaluation process. • To plan data collection, you must think about the questions to be answered and the information sources available.

  8. Cont, • you must begin to think ahead about how the • information could be organized, analyzed, interpreted and then reported to various audiences • There are many methods available to gather information, and a wide variety of information sources.

  9. Pre-Data Collection Steps 1. Clearly define the goals and objectives of the data collection 2. Reach understanding and agreement on operational definitions and methodology for the data collection plan 3. Ensure data collection (and measurement) repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and stability

  10. What kind of data should be collected? • The information you collect is the evidence you will have available to answer the evaluation questions. • Poor evidence is information which cannot be trusted, is limited, or simply is not relevant to the questions asked. • Good evidence is information that comes from reliable sources and through trustworthy methods that address important questions

  11. There are two general types of information: • descriptive and judgmental.Descriptive information • can include the following examples: • Characteristics of the project • Reports of project accomplishments • Current skill or knowledge levels of project personnel and the target audience • Amount of participation by the target audience • Policies concerning cost share • Rules regarding research • Types of participants • Demographic data

  12. Judgmental information • Includes the following examples: • Opinions from experts or consultants • Consumer preferences • Target audience’s beliefs and values • Technical agency personnel’s interpretation of laws • Stakeholders perceived priorities • Stakeholders interpretation of guidelines

  13. What methods should be used to collect data? The selection of a method for collecting information must balance several concerns including • Resources available • Credibility • Analysis and reporting • Resources • And the skill of the evaluator

  14. Major types of data collection methods • Three types of approach have been used most frequently by nurse researcher: • Self-reports • Observation • Biophysiologic

  15. 1. Self-reports • Self-report data can be gathered either by oral interview or by written questionnaire • The self-report method is strong with respect to its directness & flexibility *If we want to know what people think, feel, or believe (qualitative data) the most direct means of gathering the information is to ask them about it.

  16. Disadvantage of self-report • Verbal report instruments share a number of weaknesses. The most serious issue is the question of the validity & accuracy of self-report: • How can we really be sure that respondents feel or act the way they say they do? • How can we trust the information that respondents provide, particularly if the questions could potentially require them to reveal an unpopular position on a controversial issues?

  17. Developing a data collection plan • Identify types of data needed for the study • Select the types of measures to measure each variable • Select and/or develop instruments • Secure written permission to use each instrument • Pilot test researcher-developed instrument & revise plan • Develop data collection forms and procedures • Implement data collection plan

  18. 1-Identify types of data needed for the study 1-Testing hypothesis or answering research questions 2-Describe characteristics of sample Demographics - age, gender, ethnic origin, education background, marital status Health-related variables - health habits, diet, exercise, illness, length of illness, 3- Control for extraneous variables Measure as many as possible Intrinsic and extrinsic factors (variables) May want to see if main effects also apply to

  19. Cont. 4- Analyze data 5-Interpretation of results Consider results that do not fit desired outcomes Identify what data might explain undesirable Obtain administrative data Records of subject ID=s Data on number of times subjects recruited or approached, dates of data collection, length of time for data collection, location, time of day, and who collected data Who, what, when, where, and how of data collection

  20. 2 Select the types of measures to measure each variable • Each variable must be measured - quantified • Highly structured measurement takes time and testing to develop, yet gives data easier to analyze both descriptively and inferentially • Objective measurement of phenomenon • Better to use multiple methods to measure variables - self-reports, observations, and physiologic measures • Need to consider ethics, cost, time, staff, and stress on pt./family &/or agency personnel

  21. 3-Select and/or develop instruments Identify existing instruments Fit with conceptual definition of variable Quality of instrument - validity & reliability Validity: Will the information collection methods you have designed produce information that measures what you say you are measuring? Be sure that the information you collect is relevant to the evaluation questions you are intending to answer. Reliability: Will the evaluation process you have designed consistently measure what you want it to measure? If you use multiple interviews, settings, or observers, will they consistently measure the same thing each time? If you design an instrument, will people interpret your questions the same way each time?

  22. Cont. • Resources - costs • Instrument use & scoring • Data collectors salary • Subject compensaton • Availability & familiarity • Researcher expertise • Equipment • Norms - comparability • Established norms for instrument - provide comparison group • Replication - use same instruments • Populations appropriateness • Reading level & writing ability • Cultural , ethnic origin • Gender biased • Translations for non-English speaking subjects

  23. 4 Secure written permission to use each instrument • Look for employer and write to author at place of employment • Find most recent publication to identify current employer • Request a copy of the instrument and information on scoring, procedures, validity, and reliability

  24. Develop instrument, pilot test researcher-developed instrument • Revise it plan Instrument based on theoretical framework of study • Pilot test on small scale & evaluate before administration large group • Determine amount of time to complete instrument

  25. Areas problematic for subjects • Difficult to understand & reading level too high • Offensive terminology • Sequencing of questions • Training of data collectors • How well instrument discriminates among subjects - detects differences in subjects • Revise instrument based on pilot

  26. 6 Develop data collection forms and procedures • Forms • Screening potential subjects • Consent & assent forms • Explanations to potential subjects for people referring subjects • Advertisements to recruit subjects • Records for tracking contacts with subjects • Mailing lists and logs for receipts

  27. Cont. • Procedures • Specific conditions for data collection • Specific procedures and sequencing for experiments • Standard information for subject's questions • Procedures for risks if they occur • List of all materials needed • Interview guidelines, instruments, observation directions

  28. 7 Implement data collection plan • Select who will collect data • Researcher or neutral agent • Staff • Experience • Background similar to subject • Unremarkable appearance - dress, make-up, jewelry • Personality - pleasant, sociable, non-judgmental, non-threatening • Available to collect data for the entire study period

  29. Training data collectors • Includes general principles of data collection & specifics for study • Data collection training manual • Review manual, forms, and procedures • Demonstrate data collection and return demonstration with videotape • Periodic observation of data collection to verify procedures are followed

  30. Self-reports • Approaches to collect self report data • Unstructured • Semi- Unstructured • Self report techniques • Interviews • verbal communication between research and subject; commonly used in exploratory and descriptive studies Unstructured interview • 1- subject's world view; open-ended questions with probes and prompting; qualitative; audiotape

  31. Semi-structured interview - • 1 subject; list of topics or questions for discussion with additional probes, aka topic guide; uses both open • and close-ended questions; taped • Structured interview– • 1 subject; specific questions asked in • Consistent order using the same words each time; no variation from questions and no explanation of unclear questions

  32. Focus group interview • 5 to 15 subjects in a group; • Interviewer/moderator asks open-ended questions; efficient yet some individuals inhibited by others in the group • Life history - anthropologic; chronologic changes; sequence of events • Critical incident - subject describes an event (incident) from his viewpoint r/t research topic

  33. Diary - subject's daily log describing own experiences r/t the research topic • Instruments- interview schedule with questions and space to record answers; tape recordings of face-to-face or telephone interviews • Interviewertraining - pilot testing; familiar with content and situations encountered with interviewing; practice maintaining unbiased verbal and nonverbal communication

  34. Gathering unstructured self report data • good listener good questioner; make subject relaxed and open; maintain focus on the topic; summarize and close on a positive note • Evaluate unstructured approach data • Explore new topics and experiences; time consuming and demanding

  35. Structured self report instrument Types of closed-ended questions 1- Dichotomous items– 2 opposing choices; yes/no or true/false 2- Multiple choice -- >2 choices from which subject selects 1 option 3- Rank-order - subject places options in rank or order of importance based on tool directions 4-Forced-choice - 2 polar alternative statements; similar to dichotomous, but in the form of sentences rather than singl words

  36. 5- Rating - Likert scale; semantic differential scale • Psychological tests • Personality inventories– mmpi, Edwards personal preference • Projective techniques– Rorschach inkblot test; Thematic Apperception Test (tell a story based on a picture)

  37. Administering self-report instruments • Interviews • Put subject at ease • Punctual, friendly, courteous, respectful • Privacy – obtain written consent • Check tape recorder function before each interview; bring extra batteries and tapes • Remain neutral • Use interview guide for consistency

  38. Advantages of interview • Better response rates • Wider range of subjects • Can clarify questions • Greater depth of questions • Decreases missing information • Order of questions controlled • Adds supplementary observational data

  39. Questionnaires • Group or individuals – easy with group • Personal contact with subjects or mailed • Want response rate of at least 60% to avoid response bias • Cover letter stating completion and return of questionnaire indicates • consent of subject • Can drop off and pick up in person or mail • Mailing with follow-up plan – questionnaire, postcard, questionnaire, • postcard • Advantages - Cheaper, anonymity, no interviewer bias

  40. Response biases of subjects • Social desirability – chooses answer most socially acceptable • Response set – items influence the subjects response to other items • Extreme responses – selects response on either extreme end of poles

  41. Acquiescence response • yeah-sayers– always agrees with statement; use both positive and negative statements to counterbalance this response • Nay-Sayers – always disagrees with statement; use both positive and negative statements to counterbalance this response

  42. Tips for wording the question • Clearly stated • Bias decreased • Sensitive information – respect subject • Worded so that subjects can respond to questions • Short sentences – ask only 1 question at a time; positive statements

  43. Cont. • Avoid leading questions; focus on research objectives and questions • Use closed-ended questions with socially unacceptable topics • Do not assume subjects are well informed about topic • Impersonal wording of items without "I" • Mutually exclusive item choices

  44. Observational methods Gathering data through visual, auditory, tactile and other senses • Phenomenon • Characteristics of individuals • Verbal & nonverbal communication behavior • Activities • Skill attainment and performance • Environmental characteristics • Steps in observation • Decide what to observe • Determine how to conduct observation to ensure every variable observed in same manner Orient and provide written instructions to observers • Validate accuracy and consistency of observation techniques

  45. Observational Methods • Unstructured observations • No planning – spontaneous • Observer freedom • Risk loss of objectivity • Requires excellent memory & interpersonal skills • Structured observations • Define what is to be observed • Define how observations will be made, recorded, and coded • Recording structured observations

  46. Participant observations– observer & subject interact to some degree duration observation • Overt– subject aware of observation • Covert – subject not aware of observation • Non-participant observations – observer and subject do not interact; can be overt or covert • Timing of observations • Time sampling – making an observation for a specified length of time at pre-determined intervals (eg observe for 5 minutes every 15 minutes or observe for 5 minutes 3 randomly selected times each hour) • Event sampling– making an observation whenever an event occurs

  47. 111-Biophysiologic Methods Purposes Basic physiology with relevance for nursing care Ways that nursing actions or medical interventions affect patient health outcomes Evaluation of specific nursing procedures or interventions testing a hypothesis Improving measurement and recording of biophysiologic data collected by RN Correlation of physiologic function in patient with health problems

  48. Major types • In vivo • Measurements performed directly with in or on living organisms themselves • May use complex instrumentation system with computers • May be simple – thermometer, pulse oximeter, stethoscope • In vitro • Measurements performed outside the organism’s body Specimens collected and tested outside body • Blood chemistries, microbiologic, cytologic specimens …………………………….SCAN

  49. Considerations for physiologic measurements Will measure yield good information? Does it fit research questions/hypothesis and variables of study? What other methods of measurement could be used? Invasive & noninvasive Equipment and supply costs; reliability of equipment and complexity of operation Training of personnel

  50. Thank You! Prof. Dr. Ali ŞEN