Data Collection The boring but have to get through stuff……
First… A basic understanding of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and How it fits with Problem Solving Model
What is“Positive Behavioral Support”? PBIS focuses on PROACTIVE support strategies that • reduce the likelihood of problem behavior • allow individual students to be as independent and successful as possible in the school setting. • encompass a range of strategies from systemic to individual supports
PBIS Continuum Intensive Interventions -individualized strategies supporting students with high risk behaviors 5% Universal Interventions – proactive strategies supporting all students 15% Targeted Interventions –specialized strategies supporting students with at risk behaviors 80% of Students
Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Universal Targeted Intensive • School-wide PBIS • System wide procedures • School wide systems - Classroom systems - Non classroom systems • -Proactive management ideas • Informal/formal data • collection and evaluation • PSM Team / IAP / IEP • PSM Interventions • IAP or IEP • Functional Behavior • Assessment • Behavior Intervention Plan • Data collection, assessment, • observation • Mental Health in the Schools • PSM Team / IAP / IEP -Formal evaluation -Functional Behavior Assessment -Behavior Intervention Plan • Manifestation Determination • Short-Term Suspension • Analysis Worksheet
Problem Solving Continuum INTENSIVE 1 – 7 % STRATEGIC 5 - 15 % Levels of Intervention CORE 80 - 90 % School-wide systems to support student achievement. Adapted from Sugai and Horner
How Do the Processes Align? The most important alignment is that both support most students through “universal” school/classroom processes, some students through more “targeted” support, and a small group with the most “intensive” support • Baseline data collection • Analysis of data collected • Problem definition • Design interventions • Identification of who, when, where teaching will occur • Implementation of interventions • Charting/Progress Monitoring • Analysis of progress • Continue implementation, change the interventions some, change the interventions significantly • Continue with the review plan, intervene, analyze process • Based in Behavior Analysis PSM Other Areas of Alignment Include: PBIS
Data Collection Collecting Data in Many Ways to Assist in the Development of Intervention Strategies
Why do you need to collect data? • to implement best teaching practices • to report progress to parents • to collect information regarding a student • or students’ performance • to address the I.D.E.A. “Special Factors” • requirement for a student with an IEP • to monitor a behavior or the response to an • intervention directed towards the behavior • to determine eligibility for accommodations or educational services
Why do we collect data and why is it so important that the data be objective and accurate? • Data is collected for a variety of reasons. • To establish base-line data. • To identify behavioral patterns • Time • Frequency • Duration • Intensity • To measure student behavior in specific settings or contexts. • To provide objective and accurate data to evaluate student growth. • Data collected must be unbiased and purely objective. • Data must be accurate and free of speculation or personal opinion. • Data should never be influenced by other students or related consequences and should only reflect the behavior of the student being observed.
Where should we collect data? • Data should be collected in as many settings and contexts as possible. • Data collection is important in areas where behaviors are not observed to help substantiate a lack of stimuli.
When should we collect data? • Time of day or schedule is sometimes very important in determining student behavior patterns. • Fatigue or the end of a medication cycle might give way to a behavioral episode, so it is important to not leave out any period during the day.
How do we use the data collected? • Data collected will provide information about specific behavior patterns. • Data will help identify stimuli or triggers for student behavior. • Data will provide observed responses to specific stimuli. • Data collection is an important component of the Functional Behavior Assessment process. • Data will help provide a picture of the child and give the care-giver an objective base from which to develop a hypothesis about student’s behavior. • This hypothesis will serve as a platform on which to build a Behavior Intervention Plan.
Who should data be collected for? • Data collection is not limited to students with behavioral needs. • Any type of student need should be identified and based on objective observation or assessment. • IEPs are based on data collected from a variety of performance and functional levels. • Social/Emotional • Health/Physical • Intelligence • Academic Performance • Communication
What is the final use and purpose of the data collected? • The ultimate outcome we want from effective and accurate data is a complete understanding of the child and a road map to success in meeting the child’s needs and providing an educational environment in which the child can learn. • This is after all the goal of special education to provide a free and appropriate public education for all special needs children. • To level the playing field by providing modifications, accommodations and services to meet the specific needs of the children
The Rules of Data Collection • Meaningful and relevant to the behavior • Unobtrusive as possible • Respect the dignity of the student and the student’s age • Promote independence • Foster peer acceptance
Teacher Responsibilities • Identify and define skill/behavior • Establish BASELINE and CRITERIA • Create a user-friendly data collection method • Train team members to collect data across environments • Review and analyze data weekly • Modify programs based on data
Related Service Personnel Responsibilities • Evaluate in specialty areas for present level of performance (baseline) • Provide recommendations to educational team based on evaluation • Evaluate in specialty area for student progress (criteria)
Para-Professional Responsibilities • Participate in data collection training • Collect data in environments where the teacher may not be present and during instruction • Review andanalyze data with educational staff
Parent Responsibilities • Participate in data collection training • Collect data in home and community settings • Share data with educational team on a regular basis
Data Collection Options • Indirect or Informant Reports; • Direct Observation; and, • Combination System.
Frequency Count (Rate) Interval Recording Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) Duration Recording Permanent Product Video Environmental Analysis Task Analysis Skills Checklist Self-Monitoring Digital Images Photographs Direct Data Assessment
Frequency Count Number of times the behavior or skill occurred
A-B-C Analysis Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Start____________ Stop____________ Total Time_______ Start____________ Stop____________ Total Time_______ Stop____________ Start____________ Total Time_______ Stop____________ Start____________ Total Time_______ Duration Recording
Permanent Product skoole 04 +7 11 04 +7 14 School
Environmental Analysis Behavior or skill Group Recess Lunch Math Hallway
Direct Observation of Behavior • Must be observable • sight or hearing • occurrence or non-occurrence • Definable • two or more people can agree • Countable and measurable • communicate using a number
Helpful Hints • Measure only one behavior/skill • Clearly define the behavior/skill • Determine the correct data collection method • Determine what environments data will be taken • Provide training for accuracy and objectivity
Descriptions of Problem Behavior • Trish is aggressive.
Concrete Description of Behavior • Trish hits other students during recess when she does not get her way.
Description of Behavior • Carlos is disruptive.
Concrete Description of Behavior • Carlos makes irrelevant and inappropriate comments during class discussion.
Academic Engaged Time • Academic engaged time refers to attending to material and task, making the appropriate motor response, and asking for assistance in an appropriate manner.
Total Disruptive Behavior • Total disruptive behavior is a class of behaviors that disturbs, the classroom ecology and interferes with instruction. Examples of disruptive behaviors include being out of seat without permission, not complying with teacher instruction, hitting, biting, making any audible noises or vocalizations that disrupt the environment, yelling, cursing, and taking others’ property.
Total Negative Social Interation • Total negative social interaction is defined as behaviors that disturb ongoing play activities and involves physical or verbal aggression. Examples of these disruptive behaviors include hitting, biting, curing, threatening, and grabbing.
Time Spent Alone • Time spent alone is defined as when the target student is not within 10 feet of any other children, is not socially engaged, and is not participating in any activity with other children.
Setting Events • I - Instruction – This is instruction time where the teacher is providing direct instruction to the individual student. • G - Group – This is an event where there is a group of students or individuals involved in an activity or instruction. • T – Transition – This is a time where the student is moving from class to class or activity to activity. Usually when there is less supervision than in other settings. • S – Seat Work – This is the time allocated to the student to work on his/her own in the classroom.
Contexts • Environmental settings the child experiences during the day • Academic Classroom (math, science, social studies or English) • Gymnasium • Lunchroom • Hallway • Music room • The structure and presentation may vary and may provide for different behavioral opportunities • Different contexts may also offer different challenges to the student and may trigger different behavior responses. • Example might be: • Academic learning challenges. • Physical challenges in PE. • Social challenges in group activities like music
Techniques for Measuring Behavior • Measures of Time Passage • duration recording • latency recording • time sampling • Amount or Frequency • event recording • interval recording
Amount or Frequency • Event Recording • Behaviors that have a discrete beginning and end • Interval Recording • Behavior happens very frequently and lasts for a discrete period of time
Antecedents • What events, persons or environmental factors are present when the behaviors occur? • Events examples • Doing math problems (not understanding) • Playing basketball and being dominated • Giving a speech in front of the class and struggling with words. • Asked to do school work • Persons in the setting • Class bully • X-girlfriend • Demanding teacher perceived as an enemy • Group of students ignoring the child • Environmental factors • Temperature in the room • Physical location of desk • Hunger, thirst of illness. • Social problems or problems at home.
Time Passage • Duration Recording • want to know how long the behavior lasts • Latency Recording • want to know how long before the behavior starts
Recording Sheets • Student’s name • Date or dates of observation • Observer name and role • Start and end time • Setting of observation • Definition of behavior being observed • Key to any codes used
Event Recording • Advantage • easily converted into a graph • Limitations • requires behavior that occurs at a relatively stable level and is easy to count • not useful when behavior occurs at high rates or for extended period of time