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First Aid and Common Injuries. Answer This…. What do you think first aid is? When should first aid be given? Who can give first aid? List some supplies that can be found in a first aid kit. First Aid for Common Injuries. Wounds Sprains Broken bones Insect and animal bites Burns
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Answer This… • What do you think first aid is? • When should first aid be given? • Who can give first aid? • List some supplies that can be found in a first aid kit.
First Aid for Common Injuries Wounds Sprains Broken bones Insect and animal bites Burns Poisoning Objects in the eye Nosebleed Fainting Heat related illnesses
What is first aid? • Immediate temporary care given to an injured or ill person until he or she can get professional help.
Why is it important to know basic first aid? • Can prevent further injury • Can speed recovery • Knowing how to correctly give first aid can be the difference between life and death
The following supplies are typically found in a first-aid kit… Tweezers Scissors Thermometer Cotton swabs Cold pack Antiseptic ointment More first-aid kit supplies… Guaze pads Adhesive tape Adhesive bandages Tissues Hand cleaner Disposable gloves Plastic bags First-Aid Supplies
Types of Wounds • Closed Wound • Bruise • Develops when the body is bumped or hit • Damages soft tissue layers beneath the skin, causing internal bleeding. • Blood and fluids seep into tissues, causing swelling and changing color
Types of Wounds Open Wound • Break in the skin • Amount of bleeding depends on location and severity of injury
Answer This… • What types of things would you need in order to properly treat an open wound? (first aid supplies) • How would you treat someone who was bleeding badly from an open wound on their leg?
Types of Open Wounds • Four types of open wounds • Abrasions • most common • Do not bleed much • hurts because it scrapes away outer skin layers • Also known as a cut, scrape, rug burn • Lacerations • Cut in skin commonly caused by a sharp object • Can bleed heavily or not at all depending on severity of damage • Deep lacerations can cut layers of fat and muscle and damage nerves and blood vessels
Types of Open Wounds • Avulsion • Portion of the skin and sometimes other tissue is partially or completely torn away • Body part could be completely torn away (amputation) • Damages deeper tissues • Lots of bleeding • Puncture • Caused by a pointed object (nail) • Gunshot wound is considered a puncture wound • Do not bleed much unless blood vessel is damaged • Can carry germs into the body and cause infections
Wound Activity Treatment of Wounds
Care for Open Wounds • Cover with dressing (bandages) to control bleeding • Dressing/bandages will absorb blood and help prevent infection by protecting injury from dirt • Wash area with soap and water to kill bacteria
Care for Closed Wounds • Apply ice • Elevate injury to help decrease swelling • DO NOT elevate if it causes more pain • If serious – person can’t move without pain…call 9-1-1
Answer This… • Read the article on the back of your open wound worksheet. • List 6 Facts in your journal as you read. • Sit quietly for our short discussion on the article.
SPRAINS • Condition in which the ligaments that hold the joints in position are stretched or torn. • Ankles, knees, fingers, wrist • Swelling, bruising, pain, redness, black and blue.
Rice for Sprains • Rest. Helps protect the injured area to prevent further damage. • Ice. Cold will reduce pain and swelling. Apply ice right for 10 to 20 minutes, 3 or more times a day. After 48 to 72 hours, if swelling is gone, apply heat to the area that hurts. Do not apply ice or heat directly to the skin. Place a towel over the cold or heat pack before applying it to the skin. • Compression. Compression, or wrapping the injured or sore area with an elastic bandage will help decrease swelling. • Elevation. Elevate the injured or sore area on pillows while applying ice and anytime you are sitting or lying down. Try to keep the area at or above the level of your heart to help minimize swelling.
FRACTURE BREAK IN THE BONE OPEN FRACTURE – A COMPLETE BREAK WITH ONE OR BOTH SIDES OF THE BONE PIERCING THE SKIN CLOSED FRACTURE – BONE DOES NOT BREAK THE SKIN (MORE DIFFICULT TO DIAGNOSE) SYMPTOMS PAIN< SWELLING<MISSHAPPEN APPERANCE DIAGNOSIS X-RAY TREATMENT Hard or soft cast Anatomic– use of another body part Soft– use of soft materials such as a towel Ridgid– use of stiff material such as cardboard, metal strips Broken Bones OPEN CLOSED
Insect and Animal Bites • SERIOUS – for people with certain allergies • They may need an Epinephrine Auto-injector • Call 911 with symptoms of: • difficulty breathing, nausea, confusion Treatment InsectTreatment Animal • Remove stinger by scraping *Wash with soap and water it off with a firm/straight *Apply pressure to stop any edged object bleeding • Wash with soap and water *Apply antibiotic ointment • Apply ice – 10 on 10 off – and a sterile bandage To reduce swelling
4th degree: a burn that extends deeply into the soft tissue, completely destroying the skin, fat, and underlying tendons, and sometimes involving muscle, fascia, or bone
Answer This… Describe how you would use an anatomical splint when assisting someone with a broken leg? Be Very Specific!!! If you were absent, please review quietly your notes from the days before.
Answer This… • Describe how to properly use an EPI-Pen • Be Specific! • Is it ok to use someone else’s EPI-Pen in an emergency?
Answer This… • Have you ever had a Nose Bleed? • What did you do to control the bleeding? • If you have never had a nose bleed, what do you know about how to treat the nose bleed? • List 3 things you have learned so far about common injuries.
Answer This… • Have you ever had something in your eye? • What did you do to get it out? • What are some other methods to get a foreign object from you eyes? • How can you protect your eyes while performing various activities?
Poisoning • Poison is a substance that causes harm when: • Swallowed • Inhaled • Absorbed by the skin • Injected into the body ½ of all poisonings are caused medications and household products TREATMENT of ALL POISONING or SUSPSECTED POISONING • Call nearest poison control center • Call 24 hour poison hot line - 1-800-222-1222 • Provides medical treatment for victim • Poisonous Chemical Skin Contact • Remove clothing that has come in contact with poison • Rinse skin with water for 15 minutes • Wash gently with soap and water • Call poison control center
Foreign Object in the DON’T RUB THE EYE FLUSH the eye with WATER and repeat until the object washes out OR GENTLY PULL the lower lid downward while holding the upper lid open – look down – have someone locate the object in your eye – LIGHTLY TOUCH the object with a moist cotton swab and move into the corner of the eye – REMOVE OBJECT Call 911 if the object cannot be removed
Nosebleed Causes: 1. injury 2. illness 3. dry air Treatment: 1. pinch nostrils shut with thumb and forefinger 2. breathe though the mouth 3. duration: 5-10 minutes heavy bleeding for 15 minutes call 911
FAINTING – brief loss of consciousness when blood supply to the brain is cut off for a short period of time Treatment for someone else who FAINTS: 1. check for breathing 2. raise legs above the head 3. loosen tight clothing 4. call 911 if victim remains unconscious for a few minutes 5. seek medical attention after victim has regained consciousness 6. ** BEGIN ADVANCED CARE If you feel FAINT sit or lie down place your head between you knees
HEAT RELATED ILLNESS Heat Cramps Symptoms • painful muscle spasms that happen during exercise in hot weather Treatment 1. rest 2. cool down 3. drink water 4. gentle stretching exercise or massage to muscles
HEAT- RELATED ILLNESS Heat Exhaustion Symptoms 1. faintness, nausea, rapid heartbeat 3. hot, red, dry, or sweaty skin Treatment 1. lie victim down in a cool area 2.elevate feet 3. loosen tight clothing 4. drink water 5. Fan victim and spray with water *Watch victim for symptoms of heatstroke.
Answer This… • What is the differences between Heat Cramps and Heat Exhaustion? • What one is more serious? • What are some ways to treat Heat Cramps?
HEAT- RELATED ILLNESS Heatstroke (life threatening) Symptoms 1. body stops sweating 2. body temperature increases to 1040 3. rapid heart beat 4. shallow breathing. Treatment 1. CALL 911 2. treat the same as heat exhaustion
Hypothermia • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001105/#adam_000038.injury.causes • Video Clip From Learn360 - Heat and Cold Emergencies
Severe Bleeding Always follow universal precautions(WEAR GLOVES) when providing first aid to a person who is severely bleeding. Use following steps to help control the bleeding: Raise wounded body part above the level of the heart, if possible. Cover the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth.Press firmly against the gauze and apply continuous pressure for five minutes or until help arrives. If blood soaks through sterile gauze, DO NOT REMOVE IT! Add another gauze on top and continue to apply pressure. Once bleeding slows, secure the pad with a bandage or rolled gauze. The pad should be snug, but not too tight. Stay with the person until help arrives.
Universal Precautions • WASH YOUR HANDS AFTER GIVING FIRST AID! • Avoid contact with blood or other body fluids • Use protective breathing barriers • Use bandage to cover any of YOUR cuts, sores, scrapes or skin conditions • Use gloves • Don’t eat, drink, or touch your mouth, nose or eyes until you have washed your hands • Do not touch personal items until hands are washed • Do not touch blood soiled objects • Tell EMS personnel if you came into direct contact with any blood or body fluids
HIV and AIDS • AIDS – Acquired immune deficiency syndrome • Condition caused by HIV • HIV damages the immune systems that fight infection • Weakened immune systems allow infections to develop • People with HIV might not look or feel sick • People with AIDS develop life-threatening infections, which lead to death • NO VACCINE FOR HIV, PREVENTION IS BEST
Transmission of HIV during First Aid • Unprotected direct contact with infected blood. • Infected blood/fluids from one person enter another person through entry sight (eyes, mouth) • Ex) blood splashes from infected person into the responders eye • Unprotected indirect contact with infected blood • Touch an object that contained infected blood/fluids and the infected blood/fluids enter body through entry site • Ex) responder picks up blood soaked bandage with bare hand and the infected blood enters through a cut in the skin
Shock • A life-threatening condition in which the circulatory system fails to deliver enough blood to vital tissues and organs. • Signs: • cool, clammy, pale or gray skin • weak and rapid pulse • slow, shallow breathing • eyes dull and pupils dilated • feel faint,weak, confused and anxious
How to treat shock: • Call for medical help immediately • Help the person lie down on back with feet raised slightly higher than head. Keep person still. • Loosen tight clothing • Use a blanket, coat or other cover to help keep the person warm • Do not give the person anything to drink • Roll person on side in event of vomiting or bleeding from mouth in order to prevent choking.