Requested topics - Tudors Before we look at these I want to check that you know the answers to the course’s key questions !!!!!
Religion • What was the state of the Church on the eve of the Reformation? • What were the motives for religious change? • To what extent was England protestant by 1540?
Wolsey & Government • How did Wolsey rise to power? • How successful were Wolsey’s domestic policies? • Was Wolsey an ‘Alter Rex’? (What was the nature of his relationship with Henry and who was in charge?)How far was Henry at the centre of his government at home? • Why did Wolsey fall from power?
Foreign Policy • What were Henry’s aims? • How successful was Henry 1509-1514? • How successful was 1514-1529? • How far did religion shape foreign affairs 1530-1540?
Annulment • Why did Henry want an annulment? • Why couldn’t Henry get it? • 1530-32: A period of drift? • How did the Acts of Parliament secure the break with Rome and the Royal Supremacy? • Why did Henry make the break from Rome and establish the Royal Supremacy? • How serious was opposition? • Why was there so little opposition?
Dissolution of the Monasteries • Why did Henry dissolve them? • Was the dissolution pre-planned? • How were they dissolved? • What were the effects?
P of G • What caused the Pilgrimage of Grace? • What happened? • How important were the local nobility and gentry in leading and spreading the revolt? • Why did it fail? • How much of a threat was it?
Wolsey’s rise to power • Early domestic policies/ Eltham ordnances • The different factions and their members • Young lion • All the different treaties in the 1520s • Key points of great matter • Cromwell, the acts of the Reformation Parliament and what they did • Thomas More _saint or sinner • Dissolution of the monasteries • Thomas Cromwell's role in the dissolution of the monasteries. • Protest against reformation • Pilgrimage of grace. • Revolution in Government • Summary of all thematic reviews • Summary of individuals e.g. Wolsey, AB, More, Cromwell, Cranmer and any others i have missed
Wolsey’s rise to power • Royal Almoner • Organises successful expedition to Tournai in 1513 • Bishop of Tournai in 1514 and Archbishop of York • Cardinal and Lord Chancellor • 1518: legate a latere
Luck or skill? • Wolsey pre-H8 - 1st from Oxford at 15; Henry VII’s Chaplain - 1507 • Old councillors – H7’s men – Henry got rid of key men like Epsom and Dudley. • 1509 - Royal Almoner • In 1512-13 = skill in organising an expeditionary force to invade France, • 1514 - Bishop of Tournai and Archbishop of York • 1515 – Cardinal + Lord Chancellor • 1518 - Legate a latere • Presiding over Star Chamber and Court of Chancery • Expulsion of ‘minions’ in 1519 and Eltham Ordinances 1526
Justice Historians have disagreed over whether Wolsey bought greater justice to the legal system or not.
Lord Chancellor in 1515 • Head of the country’s secular legal system and directly responsible for the legal work of both of the Royal Court • Court of Chancery and the Court of Star Chamber. These were courts which could be used by the King’s subjects (ordinary people) to get justice. • Considerable amount of time and attention. Heard many cases and anyone was able to bring their case before him in the Star Chamber. The Star Chamber dealt with 120 cases per year under Wolsey compared with only 12 under Henry VII. • Wolsey championed the poor against the rich. • Common law v Civil Law = more progressive legal system. • Quick to use the system to further his own interests and using the law as a personal vendetta e.g. Sir Amyas Paulet.
Caused resentment = targeted aristocratic privileges. • 1515 he sent the Earl of Northumberland to Fleet Prison for contempt of the council’s jurisdiction. • BUT no institutional changes that would have outlasted him. • Left an enormous backlog of cases to be heard in the Star Chamber by 1529 and the administration was chaotic.
Enclosure • Argued = dedication to the plight of the poor. • Three statutes pre- Wolsey = largely ignored. • 1517 = a national enquiry into enclosed land. • Many brought to court were ordered to rebuild houses that had been destroyed and allow the land to be free for arable farming. • In reality enclosure continued to take place and reform was piecemeal. • Wolsey more = parliamentary session of 1523 = Wolsey was forced to accept all existing enclosures. • Could not exert total authority over the nobility.
Finances • Effective reform of the financial system to make it more fair and efficient? • Replaced = ‘fifteenths and tenths’ with ‘Tudor subsidy (favoured by Wolsey because it was more progressive) • 1513 and 1516 it raised £170,000 while the old system only raised £90,000. • In 1523 Wolsey demanded over £800,000 from Parliament = raised £300,000. Forced to accept concessions on enclosure. • Fiscal policies were causing resentment
Amicable Grants 1525 • Battle of Pavia. = invade France • non-parliamentary tax • Violence = three yrs of forced loans and parliamentary taxes • Rebellion across Suffolk and East Anglia. 10,000 men marched on Lavenham (an important cloth-making centre in Suffolk). The hostility was not initiated by nobles (many actually helped to restore order) but it showed unpopularity. • Abandoned in 1525 • No further attempt at taxation was attempted by Wolsey. • beginning of the end for Wolsey??
Did Wolsey = deliberately monopolise power? • Parliament = met twice. • Saw pmt as source of opposition to himself • But pmt’s role only to give money and ratify laws. • Privy chamber was where power lay. • Privy chamber = threat to Wolsey? 1519 Expulsion of Minions? Motivation? • 1526 = ‘Eltham Ordinances’ = PC reduced from 12 to 6. Motivation? efficient cost-cutting exercise or attempt to monopolise power?
The Church • Any meaningful reform? • 1515 = Hunne Affair = anti-clerical feeling • Unfairness of the Benefit of the Clergy. • Wolsey = key position to reform churcj • BUT guilty of pluralism, nepotism and absenteeism. A • York – 1518 - Ecclesiastical Council = discuss ways of improving the church and the conduct and work of the clergy = no change • Visitations (inspections) of Monasteries in England = proposals for reform.
France 1512 • In 1509 = Holy League = France, Spain and HRE = attack Venice. England isolated. • H7’s advisors – frustrated Henry – 1510 Peace Treaty with France in 1510 • 1511 = France threatening the Papal States = Holy League with England, Venice and Spain to drive France out of Italy. • Joint Anglo-Spanish invasion = let down by Ferdinand.
The Battle of Spurs 1513 • Henry more determined to invade and gain glory. • Personally led an army of 30,000 men • Capture of Therouanne and Tournai with little French resistance. • Therouranne = given to Maximillian • Tournai = English Garrison = very expensive. • Propaganda ‘
The Battle of Flodden 1513 • Earl of Surrey = defeated James IV. • English = outnumbered • James dead
The Anglo-French Treaty of 1514 • No money + Leo X + HRE and Ferdinand treaty = French peace • England possession of Tournai • France agreed to pay pension areers • Younger sister Mary = elderly Louis XII.
1515-1517 Isolation • Francis 1 = 1515 • Duke of Albany to overthrow the Regency in Scotland. • Francis defeated the Swiss w • Francis = Pope = Concordat
The Treaty of London 1518 • Hijacked Leo X’s papal plans for a western crusade against the Turks • England was at the heart of bringing peace to Europe. • Prestige for Henry + end isolation • More French Pensions, get the Duke of Albany out of Scotland, and Mary engaged to the Dauphin • Motivation? Wolsey’s selfish ambitions to become Papal Legate or Pope?
The Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520 • January 1519 Charles= HRE. • Francis and Charles = looking for an ally?
1521: Treaty of Bruges • England = bargaining power due to Francis and Charles competing • Form alliance with HRE • August 1521 = Bruges = support HRE
1523 Siege on Boulogne and attack on Paris • 1523 – need to honour Bruges • Duke of Bourbon = rebellion = three-pronged assault. • Rebellion did not occur and English troops suffered.
1525: Diplomatic revolution. U Turn • Battle of Pavia (N. Italt) • Francis chrused = hostage • Henry tried to staje a claim but Charles would not share. • Amicable Grant • U turn = Treaty of More in 1525. Henry = give up claims to France = annual pension.
1526: The Treaty of Cognac • Francis released on good behaviour • Treaty of Cognac = England, France and Italian states against the Imperial forces in Italy.
1527-1529: The Imperial Sack of Rome and the Peace of Cambrai • HRE sack of Rome and the Pope Clement VII was taken prisoner! • By 1528 Charles = complete control in Italy. • Battle of Landriano = French defeat. • Peace of Cambrai in 1529 = treaty between France, Spain and the Papacy.
Heretical England + desire for alliance with HRE = Anglo French alliance falling apart + England vulnerable and isolated. • CofA + AB deaths = Henry hopes renewed interest in HRE alliance (1536). • 1538 = Peace of Nice = Isolated England • Holy Crusade = Military defences + links with German Princes.
White Rose = Cardinal Pole = call for Catholic invasion of England = brutal purge of Pole’s family. • 1539 = Act of Six Articles = u-turn to catholic doctrine. • BUT Lutheran embassy officials were visiting England . • Anne of Cleves = Italian wars resume = Cromwell’s fall
Henry VIII and divorce issue Why did Henry want an annulment? What were the obstacles to Henry securing an annulment? What was the role of Wolsey?
Route 1:Terms of original dispensation rendered it invalid • Issue of affinity between H8 and CofA confusing = was original marriage consummated? • CofA argued it was not. Therefore no issue of affinity. So dispensation was wrong. • Genuine problem was “public honesty”.
Route 2: • Challenge grounds on which the original dispensation had been issued. • Julius had ruled a dispensation admissible because it cemented peace between England and Spain. • Was political reason sufficient for setting aside God's word.
Route 3: Did Pope have the authority to issue dispensations? • Leviticus ‘if a man shall take his brother’s wife: he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless’ • Original Hebrew says “sonless” • Henry argued Julius II had exceeded his powers by over-turning the word of God as set down in the bible.
Wolsey’s strategies: Persuading the Pope to delegate the decision to his representative in England!
In Dec 1527 Clement escaped from Charles V and Henry offered to send troops to help protect him. • Later that year Wolsey persuaded Clement to send a papal legate, Cardinal Campeggio to England to try the case….
In April 1528 Cardinal Campeggio sent • Absentee Bishop of Salisbury • ill and slow progress to England (oct 28), • Under orders to delay matters = 'by the book'. • Alternative suggestion: CofA = nunnery
31st March - July 1529 = court at Blackfriars. • 18th June CofA sole appearance (show clip from the Tudors) • Hearing suspended (FP = Pope signed the Treaty of Barcelona, swearing loyalty to the Emperor). • Clement recalled the matter to Rome.
Catherine :- appealed directly to Rome for a decision, • Campeggio’s visit futile • August 1529 = summons = hearing in Rome. • Factions align against Wolsey = dismissed