APPLICATION BLANKS - COMPOSITION • Instructions for the applicants • Questions for the applicants CONTENT • Personal Background • Educational Attainment • Work Experience • Salary • Personal Items • References – Sources:- Former employer, Personal reference, Investigative agencies
WEIGHTED APPLICATION BLANKS (WAB) • It is actually a technique of scoring application forms. • The steps involved in the technique: • Choosing a criterion, e.g. job tenure, • Drawing large samples of High criterion and Low criterion groups from organizational records. • Selecting application blank items – converting them in question forms with multiple choice responses • Scoring the application blank of each individual in the sample. • Determining item weights (Use of statistical analysis for identifying differences in answers of high and low criterion group)
PHASE A IN CONSTRUCTION OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS • IDENTIFY TARGET POPULATION • LIST OUT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION- DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES, SOCIO-CULTURAL FEATURES, SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS • IDENTIFY CHARACTERISTICSWISE COMPOSITION OF ELEMENTS IN POPULATION • DETERMINE THE SAMPLE SIZE FOR STANDARDIZING THE INSTRUMENT
PHASE B – CONSTRUCTION OF AN INSTRUMENT IDENTIFY THE PERFORMANCES TO BE TESTED (CURRENT AND ANTICIPATED JOB SKILLS TO BE DETERMINED) ESTABLISH THE CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE (CRITERIA FROM CURRENT JOB DESCRIPTION MAY BE USED) SELECT THE TYPE OF TEST WHICH BEST FITS THE REQUIREMENTS OF RESPONDENTS AND PROVIDES VALID ASSESSMENT OF CRITERIA DETERMINE THE APTITUDES/ABILITIES TO BE TESTED IDENTIFY THE COMPONENTS/CONCEPTS UNDER THE DOMAIN
PHASE B (CONTD.) DEFINE EACH CONCEPT UNDER THE DOMAIN (DEFINITIONS CAN BE THEORETICAL & OPERATIONAL AND CAN BE PICKED UP FROM LITERATURE OR CUSTOMIZED) DEVELOP/WRITE THE ITEMS FOR MEASURING EACH CONCEPT REVIEWAL AND RE-REVIEWAL OF THE ITEMS BY EXPERTS AND SUPERVISORS/DEPT. HEADS DETERMINE THE SCORING STRATEGY DETERMINE QUALIFYING/CUT-OFF SCORES
PHASE C TEST ADMINISTRATION DECIDE STRATEGY FOR TEST PRESENTATION & ADMINISTRATION PROVISION FOR SUPPORTIVE FACILITIES TRAINING OF THE PROCTORS AFTER THE ITEMS OF THE TEST ARE REVIEWED AND RE-REVIEWED ADMINISTER THE FIRST VERSION OF THE TEST ON SELECTED SAMPLE (THIS IS CALLED PILOT TESTING
PHASE D - ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF RESPONSES SCORE THE RESPONSES AS PER PREVIOUSLY SET RULES CARRY OUT ITEM ANALYSIS TO CHECK STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE ITEMS REVISE OR REPLACE THE WEAKER ITEMS SECOND PILOT TESTING IN SUCH CASE ONCE THE VERSION IS FINALISED ESTABLISH SCALED SCORES FOR THE RAW SCORES OF REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE ESTABLISH RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FOR THE INSTRUMENT
COMPOSITION OF APPLICATION BLANKS • Instructions for the applicants: these are guidelines given for filling up the forms or the required columns. Hence should be clear and understandable. • It also serves important purpose of protecting or shielding the employer from an un-lawful employment charge • 2) Questions for applicants : Care should be taken while formulating questions because request for information other than necessary for initial judgment of applicants may raise the issue of discrimination.
DESIGNING APPLICATION BLANK Developing & / or Revising application forms Steps to be followed Different forms for different positions Use of job analysis data for forming questions in application forms Item to be included in the form to be reviewed using item rating criteria 1) Does this question have an adverse impact in screening out members of protected group ? 2) Is this information needed to judge competence or the qualification for the job in question ?
3) Does the question constitute an invasion of privacy ? • 4) Is information available which could be used to show that responses to a question are associated with success or failure on a specific job ? • some jobs or classes of jobs may not require in-depth assessment. Therefore items which may not be needed or cannot be justified should not be asked • Uniform guidelines should be provided & it should not have discriminatory impact on protected groups • The physical lay out & format should be considered thoroughly.
Contents of Applications Blanks Personal Background : Information regarding demographic variables is obtained. It is used for verifying suitability of candidate regarding his / her socio-economic background, family status & background, sociological outlook, impact of these factors on employee behavior etc. Educational Attainment: This gives information about depth of knowledge. Work Experience : This information helps organization to know the stability of the employee, his aptitude for nature of work, his relations with past employer.
Salary : This helps organization to know previous earnings and current expectations of prospective employees. Personal Items : This gives information about personal likes & dislikes, hobbies, association membership etc. References : There can be various sources of reference data. Sources Former Employers : Useful to verify previous employment records. Personal References : Useful to find out facts about behavior & conduct of person Contd……
Investigative Agencies : Helps in varying personal background for checking police records, recordsregarding the cases in courts of law etc. • Types of reference data collected : • Employment & educational background data • Appraisal of applicant’s character & personality • Estimates of an applicant’s job performance abilities • Willingness of the past employer to rehire an applicant.
Types of Cut-off Points Standard Score/ Norm Cut-offs Raw Score Cut-off Rank Cut-off Customized Mean Mean + S.D. Predetermined Norm Cut-offs Of Standard Instru- ments as per manual How Are The Cut-offs Finalized? What are the precautions to be taken?
Determination of Cut-offs Cutting Score (Cut-off): The score marking the point of decision is called as Cutting Score . For finalization of cutting score besides having information about the scores on the test, it is essential to have information about how people actually perform on the job. To determine about performance level on the job, some criterion must be established for deciding whether job performance has been acceptable or unacceptable.
When are Cut-offs used? Reason for using tests: To make decision regarding selection or rejection of the candidate i.e. determining whether the candidate is acceptable or unacceptable. If tests are used to make dichotomous decisions cut-off score is usually used. Values above this score go into plus category and values below this go into minus category. Plus category indicates person is suitable and minus category shows unsuitability.
Taylor Russell Utility Analysis & Cut-off Decisions Using these two sets of information further analysis is done Decision on the basis of Cutting Score (On X variable) Performance on the job(Y) Acceptable Unacceptable Success Hit(a) Miss(d) Failure Miss(c) Hit(b)
Adjusting Cut-offs The Cutting scores are to be finalized by considering the relative cost these scores create for the organization. For this one has to find the proportion of False Positives (i.e. test says person is acceptable but actually fails on the job) & False Negatives (i.e. test is indicating person is unacceptable whereas in reality person succeeds on the job). Considering the relative cost organization might need to pay because of any false information; accordingly decision needs to be taken.
Taylor And Russell Tables To estimate utility of the tests before actually implementing it, Taylor and Russell have published tables. To utilize these tables following information is needed: a) Definition of success b) The degree of selectivity i.e. selection ratio c) The desired validity coefficient d) The base rate i.e. the percent of people who would succeed if there were no testing or screening procedures.
ILLUSTRATION FACTOR ANALYSIS
INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES • IMPORTANT CONCEPT IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING • (UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY IS NO TWO INDIVIDUALS ARE IDENTICAL) IMPORTANT STEPS TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES • CHARLES DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION • SIR FRANCIS GALTON’S STUDIES DEMONSTRATING FITNESS OF MEMBERS OVER OTHERS DUE TO SPEICIFIC CHARACTERISTICS- STUDIES FOCUSSED ON DIFFERENCES IN HUMAN SENSORY AND MOTOR FUNCTIONING REFLECTED THROUGH REACTION TIME, VISUAL ACQUITY, PHYSICAL STRENGTH • J. M.CATTELL’S WORK FOCUSSED ON REACTION TIME AND COINED TERM “MENTAL TEST”
ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORK SET UP Differences due to Personal Characteristics: Physical Abilities, Mental Abilities, Personality Interests, Motivation, Skills-Aptitudes Differences due to Opportunities: Training, Education, Knowledge, & Job Skills Group Differences: Religion, Culture, Racial or Ethnic
IMPORTANT CHALLENGES FACED BY MANAGERS Right individual for Right Job- Matching Capabilities, Traits and Temperament Advantages: Leads to better performance. Helps employees adapt temperamentally. Training Needs- Adequate and Specific Training Advantages: It helps employees do the job properly and in a better way.
HOW TO STUDY INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE Differences of Job Applicants: Personal background, Personality, Education, Work Experiences, Aptitudes, & Achievements Effects of Training: Ability Level and Complexity of Task determines impact of training. Amount of training is Crucial issue Differences in Job Performance: Quality and quantity of work, Productivity differences reflected through merit ratings given by supervisors, other ratings on initiative, job knowledge, dependability, safety, absenteeism, accidents etc.
Principles of Individual Differences HEREDITY & ENVIRONMENT
Mental Ability Tests • The term mental ability is used as synonym to intelligence. There several aspects of intelligence: • Verbal Comprehension 2) Word Fluency • 3) Memory 4) Inductive Reasoning • 5) Number Facility 6) Speed Of Perception • 7) Spatial Visualization • In further research certain other identified abilities include • 8) Conceptual Classifica 9) Semantic Relations • 10) General Reasoning 11) Conceptual Foresite • 12) Figural Classification 13) Intuitive Reasoning • 14) Ordering 15) Figural Identification • 16) Logical Evaluation • Though there are so many distinct abilities included under intelligence, even measuring of Reasoning gives strong indication of intelligence
INDUCTIVE REASONING - TASKS Various tasks are used for measuring Inductive Reasoning, but some are used more commonly: Series Completion: Here the function of “Identification of the pattern” and “Systematic change” is measured. E.g. 1) w r t u s t u t t ____ 2) 3 5 8 2 4 6 1 2 ____ Analogies: Under this there can be “Geometric Analogies”, “Verbal Analogies” E.g. of Verbal Analogies – cold shiver : embarrassed a) blush b) cry c) mad d) sky e) remember
INDUCTIVE REASONING - TASKS • Completion: This task is very old category and it can be in form of sentence completion, sentence comprehension, or picture completion. “Sentence Completion or Comprehension ” tasks are used for assessing verbal reasoning. E.g. Cats have four legs but only two • tails b) noses c) lives d) paws e) ears • Seriation or Syllogisms: Here mainly the function of drawing logical conclusion by using available information is tested. E.g. A is taller than B • C is taller than A. Who is the shortest? • Classification: E.g. Pound Franc Mark • hit b) honest c) money d) lira e) ounce • Matrix tests, Following Directions
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT Performance are actions or behaviours relevant to the organization’s goals; measured in terms of each individual’s proficiency. Effectiveness is the evaluation of the results of performance.
CAMPBELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL • Campbell put forth three direct determinants of job performance: • Declarative Knowledge(DK): It means understanding what is required to perform a task; knowing information about a job or a job task [Knowledge about facts and things; an understanding of a given task’s requirements; etc.] • Procedural Knowledge and Skill(PKS): Knowing how to perform a job or task; often developed through practice and experience [Knowing how to do things, using various skills]
CAMPBELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL contd… 3. Motivation(M): Concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, and direction of ongoing behaviour [Choices which individuals make- choice to perform, level of effort, persistence of effort].
Campbell’s 8 Performance Components • Job-specific task proficiency(DK): Capacity to perform the core substantive or technical tasks central to job. • Non-job-specific proficiency(PKS): Capacity to perform tasks or execute performance behaviours that are not specific to their particular jobs. • Written and Oral communication task proficiency (PKS): Proficiency in writing and speaking, independent of the correctness of the subject matter. • Demonstrating effort(DK): The consistency of an effort, the frequency with which people will expend extra effort when required; willingness to keep working under adverse conditions.
Campbell’s 8 Performance Components • Maintaining personal discipline(DK): The extent to which an individual avoids negative behaviour such as excessive absenteeism, etc. • Facilitating peer and team performance(PKS): The extent to which an individual supports peers, helps peers with problems, helps to keep a work group goal directed, and acts as a role model • Supervision/Leadership(M): Proficiency at influencing the performance of subordinates through face-to-face interaction and influence. • Management/Administration(M): Organizing people and resources, monitoring progress, helping to solve problems likely to prevent goal accomplishment, controlling expenses, etc.
Campbell’s Additional Suggestion In 1999 Campbell acknowledged that one performance component is not included in his model viz. Adaptive Performance which includes flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This is more important, because due to Globalization people are required to work in different cultures. Besides Task performance, some I-O Psychologists have put forth concept of Contextual performance, which is more informal in nature and mainly likely to be reflected through helpful behaviour towards individuals and groups within organization and the behaviour that is helpful to the broader Organization.
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT METHODS Rating Scales: It is better to prepare a scale which stands on a continuum. Various types of Rating Scales: Graphic Rating Scales: The most Popular, usually 5 point scale. Sometimes 7 or 9 point. Cumulated Point Scale: The qualities or adjectives placed in front of judge. Those adjectives which are applicable to the given employee are picked up by the rater.
Critical Incident Check List:: Developed by Flanagan. Three steps involved in this: 1.Collection of Critical Incidents i.e. those behavioral incidents required on the job to be successful. List given by experts or supervisors. 2.Scaling the Incidents is done by experts. 3.Construction of the check list scale. Rank Order Method: In rating method same rating can be given to different employees. In ranking method this is avoided. Expert gives rank. Paired Comparison Method: In rank method every individual is compared with all others. In Paired Comparison method every individual is compared with each other explicitly in form of pairs.
Forced Choice Method: In this method judge has to select from among equally favorable or unfavorable alternatives. As a choice is forced on the judge, it is called Forced Choice. Cost Accounting Method: This method evaluates performance from the monetary returns the employee yields to his organization. A relationship is established between the cost involved in keeping the person & the benefit organization derives from him. Forced Distribution Method: Rater is forced to distribute subordinates into performance categories
PERSONALITY Personality refers to unique organization of traits that define an individual & determine that person’s pattern of interaction with environment. Traits can be defined as relatively enduring dispositions (tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstances) i.e. long lasting characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Various personality theories have been put forth but the most popular ones are Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory and Big Five Model also known as OCEAN model
GORDON ALLPORT’S TRAIT THEORY • Gordon Allport made distinction among Cardinal, Central & secondary traits. • Cardinal traits are most generalized & seem to organize whole life. It may be a single characteristic and is likely to be dominantly seen throughout the life of that individual. E.g. selflessness • Central traits less pervasive but quite generalized and major traits numbering from five to ten in any person. E.g. sociability, friendliness, etc. • Secondary traits are more specific, narrow also known as “Attitudes”. And affect behaviour in fewer situations, prone to modifications. E.g. preference for particular fashion, particular leadership style
BIG FIVE MODEL • Personality is said to be made up of “Big Five” i.e. Five main dimensions of personality have been identified. These are: • Extroversion: High on E reflects being sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative & active. • Agreeableness: High A reflects being courteous, flexible, trusting, good natured, cooperative, forgiving, soft-hearted, tolerant. • Conscientiousness: High C reflects being responsible, organized, dependable, planful, willing to achieve, & persevering, hardworking, careful, and self-disciplined.
BIG FIVE MODEL contd… • NEUROTICISM (Emotional Stability): It would be better understood by taking into consideration negative side i.e. emotional instability. It means: being emotional, tense, insecure, nervous, excitable, apprehensive & easily upset. • Openness to experience: It has also been referred to as intellect or culture & reflects being imaginative, cultured, curious, intelligent, artistically sensitive, original, & broad minded.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • This test may be mainly useful for leadership training, work group development, or career counselling • MBTI is based on the Type theory of C.J. Jung. He proposed 4 basic scales viz. EI, SN, TF, JP and from these scales 16 types are formed. • EI Scale: Extroversion (E): Oriented primarily toward outer world: focus on people and objects Introversion (I): Oriented primarily toward the inner world: focus on concepts and ideas.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator contd… • SN Scale Sensing (S): Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five senses. Intuition (N): Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of the conscious mind. • TF Scale Thinking (T): Judgment is impersonally based on logical consequences. Feeling (F): Judgment is primarily based on personal or social values.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator contd… • JP Scale Judgment (J): Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world. Perception (P): Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer world. • All the above scales can take 16 different combinations. E.g. An ENTJ person would be extrovert, intuitive, thinking and judgmental. • This scale is not strongly recommended for selection purposes by certain psycho-metricians • This test has been published in five different forms
16 Personality Factors (16 PF) FactorA – Low score Reserved-Detached, Critical cool Factor B – Low score Less intelligent – Concrete thinking Factor C – Low score Affected by feelings- emotionally less stable, easily upset Factor A- High score Outgoing-Warmhearted, Easy going, Participating Factor B – High score More intelligent- Abstract thinking, Bright Factor C – High score Emotionally stable, Faces Reality, Calm, Mature
16 Personality Factors (16 PF) Factor E Humble- mild, conforming, accommodating, Factor F Sober- prudent, serious, taciturn Factor G Expedient- evades rules, feels few obligations Factor E Assertive- independent, aggressive, competitive, stubborn Factor F Happy-go-lucky- impulsively lively, enthusiastic Factor G Conscientious-preserving, staid, rule bound
16 Personality Factors (16 PF) Factor H Shy-restrained, diffident, timid Factor I Tough minded Factor L Trusting Factor M Practical Factor N Forthright Factor H Venturesome-Socially bold, uninhibited, spontaneous Factor I Tender-minded Factor L Suspicious Factor M Imaginative Factor N Shrewd
16 Personality Factors (16 PF) Factor O Placid Factor Q1 Conservative Factor Q2 Group dependent Factor Q3 Undisciplined, self conflict Factor Q4 Relaxed Factor O Apprehensive Factor Q1 Experimenting Factor Q2 Self-sufficient Factor Q3 Controlled Factor Q4 Tense