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  1. The Three Habits of Highly Effective Teachers Rodney H. Clarken School of Education Northern Michigan University Presented at the 18th Annual National Youth-At-Risk Conference, Savannah, GA March 4-7, 2007

  2. What is a habit? • hab·it (n) 1. something done all the time; an action or behavior pattern that is regular, repetitive, and often unconscious. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  3. What is effective? • ef·fec·tive (adj) causing a result, especially the desired or intended result Rodney H Clarken 2007

  4. What is a teacher? • teach·er (n) 1. somebody who teaches. • teech (v) 1. impart knowledge or skill. (all from Encarta Dictionary) Rodney H Clarken 2007

  5. In other words, this program will describe three things which if regularly done by somebody who imparts knowledge and skills will be more likely to cause the desired result: developing our students’ potential. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  6. How can we know what is effective? 5 ways of knowing/determining truth • Senses and experience • Reason, logic and empiricism • Tradition and tested wisdom • Inspiration, intuition • God tells us Others? Rodney H Clarken 2007

  7. All these ways are fallible. • Senses (illusions, mirages) and experience (biased) • Reason, logic and empiricism (scientist and scholars disagree, new findings replace old) • Tradition and tested wisdom (varies) • Inspiration, intuition (differs) • God (may be infallible, but our understandings and interpretations are not) Rodney H Clarken 2007

  8. The best we can do is to use as many of the ways of knowing truth as possible. The more ways we can verify truth, the more we can rely on it. openly and independently investigate truth, freed from bias, superstition and limitation. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  9. In this presentation, I have tried to combine ideas from 1) experience, 2) scholarship, 3) traditional wisdom, 4) intuition, and 5) sacred scriptures to identify and synthesize the principles that I feel are the most fundamental in being an effective teacher. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  10. 1. My senses and experience As all experience is biased, it is only fair you know some of mine: Grew up poor on an Iowa tenant farm Attended six different colleges in five states and have five degrees in liberal arts, education, psychology and administration Traveled to 60 countries and lived in Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Europe and several US states 30 plus years in education at elementary, secondary and post secondary levels in rural, urban, reservation and international areas Rodney H Clarken 2007

  11. 2. Scholarship Effective teaching has an extensive literature in education, psychology and management. For example, an emerging field of psychology, Positive Psychology, draws on science, philosophy and religion to identify positive emotions, six core virtues, twenty-four signature strengths and ways of using the signature strengths in relation to work, love, and parenting. ( Rodney H Clarken 2007

  12. Dependence Habit 1 Be Proactive: Principles of Personal Vision Habit 2 Begin with the End in Mind: Principles of Personal Leadership Habit 3 Put First Things First: Principles of Personal Management Independence Stephen Covey’s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Rodney H Clarken 2007

  13. Habit 4 Think Win/Win: Principles of Interpersonal Leadership • Habit 5 Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood: Principles of Empathic Communication • Habit 6 Synergize: Principles of Creative Cooperation and Communication Interdependence • Habit 7 Sharpen the Saw: Principles of Balanced Self-Renewal The 8th Habit (2004) is to "Find your voice and inspire others to find theirs". Rodney H Clarken 2007

  14. 3. Traditional wisdom • “…virtue and happiness were intimately related for Socrates and Plato with wisdom a necessary and sufficient condition for behaving well and being happy." (Parducci 10) • Aristotle: the full realization of human potential results from two kinds of habits: • mental activity, such as knowledge, which lead to the highest human activity, contemplation; • practical action (moral virtues conforming to the golden mean) and emotion, such as courage.(Nicomachean Ethics) Rodney H Clarken 2007

  15. Anishinaabe Seven Grandfathers • Bravery • Honesty • Truth • Respect • Wisdom • Love • Humility Rodney H Clarken 2007

  16. 4. Inspiration/Intuition Combining what I have learned from other sources and meditating on what was the best way to serve teachers so that they might better be able to serve their students, I developed the model that I will share with you in this presentation. It has come over many years in bit and pieces, in part through inspiration and intuition, the result of much deliberate effort. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  17. 5. Sacred scriptures • As part of my orientation as a Baha'i, I believe in the sacred nature of all the revealed religions. Therefore, I have read extensively from the holy books of the world’s religions to find and understand the truths that are contained therein. I have looked for similarities and commonalities in teachings. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  18. Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself. Do not to others what ye do not wish done to yourself; and wish for others too what ye desire and long for yourself. Love thy neighbor as thyself. What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man. Only that nature is good when it shall not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. Choose thou for thy neighbor that which thou choosest for thyself. The Golden Rule: From Baha’i, Buddhist Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish & Zoroastrian Scriptures Rodney H Clarken 2007

  19. What then are the three habits of highly effective teachers? Rodney H Clarken 2007

  20. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  21. They combine the highest virtues of each of the three essential aspects of a human being: mind, heart and body • Truth-mind • Love-heart • Justice-body Rodney H Clarken 2007

  22. Habits of the mind: Truth trōōth n. • Conformity to fact or actuality. • A statement proven to be or accepted as true. • Sincerity; integrity. • Fidelity to an original or standard. • Reality; actuality. • often Truth That which is considered to be the supreme reality and to have the ultimate meaning and value of existence. American Heritage Dictionary Rodney H Clarken 2007

  23. Truth: Scholarship and Scripture • The scientific method is a powerful tool for ascertaining truth and advancing civilization. • "Veracity (adherence to the truth) is the heart of morality"(Thomas H. Huxley). • “Truthfulness is the foundation of all human virtues”(Abdul-Baha). • "I am the way, and the truth"(John 14:6). (Comparable statements can be found in other scriptures) Rodney H Clarken 2007

  24. Truth and knowing What we know and believe to be true can be weighed against our experience, traditions and intuition. In addition, scientific and religious truths should be considered: religion to check materialistic scientism and science to check religious superstitions, dogmas and fanaticism. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  25. Developing the habit of truth • Judge using the five ways of knowing truth. • Be truthful to ourselves, which enables us to “know thyself” and “to thine ownself be true.” • Practice understanding and communicating reality as it really is, rather than as how we imagine or fancy it to be. • Investigate truth with an open mind and consult with others. • Insist on truth in your community and institutions. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  26. Habits of the heart: Love luv (v) • an intense feeling of deep affection (Oxford) Acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. (Thomas Jay Oord). Rodney H Clarken 2007

  27. Love: Scholarship and Scripture • "Love conquers all" (Virgil). • “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.” (1 Corinthians 13:4-8) Rodney H Clarken 2007

  28. Love and emotion • Emotions are expressions of our loving capacity, and affect motivation. We feel • Happy when loved things are near, well-treated, pleased. • Sad when loved things removed, hurt, grieved. • Angry when loved things mistreated, threatened, wronged. • Fearful when loved things insecure, at-risk. • Disgusted when loved things violated, offended, made repulsive. • Understanding these forces of love can help us to regulate and direct their influence in ways that are beneficial to ourselves and others. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  29. Developing the habit of love. • We should first love ourselves, which give us the love needed to love others. • Considered the most fundamental element in all of the world’s religions. • Love gives us energy, directs our actions and leads to unity. • On the highest level, love is the attraction to good, beauty and truth. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  30. Habits of body: Justice jus·tice (n) • fairness or reasonableness, especially in the way people are treated or decisions are made (Encarta) • the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness ( Rodney H Clarken 2007

  31. Justice: Scholarship and Scripture • "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought” (John Rawls). • It is always better to be just than unjust (summary of Plato's Republic) • “Be fair to yourselves and to others” (Baha’u’llah). Rodney H Clarken 2007

  32. Developing the habit of justice • Be just to yourself. • Combine love and truth with justice. • Practice in small ways using justice in your classroom. • Demand justice in all your affairs. • Justice requires bravery and courage. • Day by day, little by little, one step at a time. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  33. Consult with your neighbor • On how you can use or develop the habits of truth, love and justice in your lives and your classrooms? • Take one student or one case that you are concerned about and share. Apply the habits to the case. How would it look. Would it work? Rodney H Clarken 2007

  34. In dealing with your situation ask yourself the following 3 questions • Is it or am I being truthful? • Is it or am I being loving? • Is it or am I being just or fair? Rodney H Clarken 2007

  35. Part 2 • If we have time and you are still interested. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  36. How can we learn more about truth, love and justice? • Read the world’s great philosophical and spiritual traditions for more insights and principles. • Study the sciences to better understand their social, psychological, physiological and neurological connections and effects. • Apply these habits in your life and use the complementary ways of knowing as checks and balances. • Consult with others in an open manner using the Seven Grandfathers. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  37. Education is a process • of the development of our capacities for truth, love and justice. • Developing these capacities is a lifelong endeavor: the more we have of them the more we want them, as they bring increased happiness and fulfillment. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  38. The 3 habits from different angles Truth LoveJustice Think Feel Act Head Heart Hand Mind Heart Body Logic/Epistemology Ethics/Aesthetics Metaphysics Truth Beauty Good Cognitive Affective Conative Reason Compassion Courage Rodney H Clarken 2007

  39. Truth, love and justice together • When all three habits work positively in harmony, the individual and society grow, develop and advance. • When a positive habit is matched with a negative habit, trouble results. • For example, those who love (+) untruth/dishonesty (-), hate (-) truth/honesty (+), or do not know (-) how to love (+), or do not love to know, a problem of growth is created. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  40. TLJ: the formula version • T x L x J = V: Truth (T) times Love (L) times Justice (J) equals Value (V) • +T x +L x +J = +V • -T x +L x +J = -V • -T x –L x +J =+V • A zero in any capacity = zero value • 3T x 2L x 0(J) = 0 • Mathematical properties • Increased quantity in any variable=increased value Rodney H Clarken 2007

  41. TLJ are contextual and developmental • Partly depends on environment, culture, interrelationships and level of development. • Are influenced by our paradigms, emotional states, beliefs, interests, goals and established habits of mind, heart and body. • The more we exert and practice TLJ, the more we will develop them. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  42. Learning TLJ • is key to promoting human happiness and well-being. • is part of developing our higher nature, which must overcome our lower natures. • will enable us to develop our individual potential. • takes effort. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  43. Setting Goals for TLJ • The more we are attracted to, understand and are able and willing to work for TLJ, the more likely we are to achieve them. • Educators can assist learners develop TLJ through developing high resolve, sense of purpose, self-esteem, sense of personal capability and an internal locus of control. • TLJ give meaning to life. They direct energy towards healthy values. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  44. Help students • develop their own TLJ in more complex, expanded and unique situations. • use consultation, reasoning, independent investigation of truth, meditation, parables, stories, metaphors, prayer and reflection to help develop TLJ. • unite body (hand), mind (head) and heart to work together. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  45. TLJ involve the knowing, wanting and creating conditions within the self and in interaction with the environment. • The educators' modeling and use of TLJ affect the classroom environment and learning. • Change in each capacity changes the context and effects the learning and becoming process. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  46. Motivation • Extrinsic motivators, though needed and useful, are limited, and can actually hinder motivation, especially if one is intrinsically motivated. • Encourage autonomy and authenticity in TLJ. • Self-actualization occurs when all three capacities are fully and actively engaged. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  47. Social influences • It is primarily in social groups that TLJ are exercised and developed. • Positive relationships are: • Loving: courteous, caring, compassionate, creative, • Truthful: consultative, open-minded • Just: complementary, chaste, constructive, collaborative and cooperative. • Positive social environments are: • safe, secure, service-oriented, fair, united, peaceful, joyous, respectful and refined. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  48. Individual differences. • Each person has unique strategies, endowments, powers, responsibilities, talents, interests and capabilities based on innate, inherited and acquired characteristics for which they are ultimately responsible to develop. • Help students know, love and actualize their their unique capacities using TLJ. • We have all been created noble. Do not abase anyone, let others abase anyone or let them abase themselves. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  49. Educators are responsible to diagnose and prescribe what is needed for each student unique endowments, experiences and heredity to encourage optimal development as best they can. • Each person is a mine filled with precious gems and minerals. Education can help each each person find his/her unique value and contribution to the world. • Unity in diversity is vital in all aspects of education. Rodney H Clarken 2007

  50. Standards and assessment. • Justice and equity are key in standards and assessment. The evaluation of all things depends upon them. • Students show the results of their learning through their lives, deeds and actions. • Encourage all to achieve excellence in all things, to become the most they can. • The most important qualities, such as TLJ, are the hardest to validly and reliably assess. Rodney H Clarken 2007